U.S Code last checked for updates: May 27, 2024
§ 1437a.
Rental payments
(a)
Families included; rent options; minimum amount; occupancy by police officers and over-income families
(1)
Dwelling units assisted under this chapter shall be rented only to families who are low-income families at the time of their initial occupancy of such units. Reviews of family income shall be made pursuant to paragraph (6); except that, in the case of any family with a fixed income, as defined by the Secretary, after the initial review of the family’s income, the public housing agency or owner shall not be required to conduct a review of the family’s income for any year for which such family certifies, in accordance with such requirements as the Secretary shall establish, which shall include policies to adjust for inflation-based income changes, that 90 percent or more of the income of the family consists of fixed income, and that the sources of such income have not changed since the previous year, except that the public housing agency or owner shall conduct a review of each such family’s income not less than once every 3 years. Except as provided in paragraph (2) and subject to the requirement under paragraph (3), a family shall pay as rent for a dwelling unit assisted under this chapter (other than a family assisted under section 1437f(o) or (y) of this title or paying rent under section 1437f(c)(3)(B) 1
1
 See References in Text note below.
of this title) the highest of the following amounts, rounded to the nearest dollar:
(A)
30 per centum of the family’s monthly adjusted income;
(B)
10 per centum of the family’s monthly income; or
(C)
if the family is receiving payments for welfare assistance from a public agency and a part of such payments, adjusted in accordance with the family’s actual housing costs, is specifically designated by such agency to meet the family’s housing costs, the portion of such payments which is so designated.
(2)
Rental payments for public housing families.—
(A)
Authority for family to select.—
(i)
In general.—
A family residing in a public housing dwelling shall pay as monthly rent for the unit the amount determined under clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (B), subject to the requirement under paragraph (3) (relating to minimum rents). Each public housing agency shall provide for each family residing in a public housing dwelling unit owned, assisted, or operated by the agency to elect annually whether the rent paid by such family shall be determined under clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (B). A public housing agency may not at any time fail to provide both such rent options for any public housing dwelling unit owned, assisted, or operated by the agency.
(ii)
Authority to retain flat and ceiling rents.—
Notwithstanding clause (i) or any other provision of law, any public housing agency that is administering flat rents or ceiling rents pursuant to any authority referred to in section 519(d) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998 before the effective day of such Act may continue to charge rent in accordance with such rent provisions after such effective date, except that the agency shall provide for families residing in public housing dwelling units owned or operated by the agency to elect annually whether to pay rent under such provisions or in accordance with one of the rent options referred to in subparagraph (A).
(B)
Allowable rent structures.—
(i)
Flat rents.—
(I)
shall not be lower than 80 percent of—
(aa)
the applicable fair market rental established under section 1437f(c) of this title; or
(bb)
at the discretion of the Secretary, such other applicable fair market rental established by the Secretary that the Secretary determines more accurately reflects local market conditions and is based on an applicable market area that is geographically smaller than the applicable market area used for purposes of the applicable fair market rental under section 1437f(c) of this title;
(II)
shall be designed in accordance with subparagraph (D) so that the rent structures do not create a disincentive for continued residency in public housing by families who are attempting to become economically self-sufficient through employment or who have attained a level of self-sufficiency through their own efforts.
 except that a public housing agency may apply to the Secretary for exception allowing for a flat rental amount for a property that is lower than the amount otherwise determined pursuant to item (aa) or (bb) and the Secretary may grant such exception if the Secretary determines that the fair market rental for the applicable market area pursuant to item (aa) or (bb) does not reflect the market value of the property and the proposed lower flat rental amount is based on a market analysis of the applicable market and complies with subclause (II) and
If a new flat rental amount for a dwelling unit will increase a family’s existing rental payment by more than 35 percent, the new flat rental amount shall be phased in as necessary to ensure that the family’s existing rental payment does not increase by more than 35 percent annually. The preceding sentence shall not be construed to require establishment of rental amounts equal to 80 percent of the fair market rental in years when the fair market rental falls from the prior year.
(ii)
Income-based rents.—
(I)
In general.—
The monthly rental amount determined under this clause for a family shall be an amount, determined by the public housing agency, that does not exceed the greatest of the amounts (rounded to the nearest dollar) determined under subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1). This clause may not be construed to require a public housing agency to charge a monthly rent in the maximum amount permitted under this clause.
(II)
Discretion.—
Subject to the limitation on monthly rental amount under subclause (I), a public housing agency may, in its discretion, implement a rent structure under this clause requiring that a portion of the rent be deposited to an escrow or savings account, imposing ceiling rents, or adopting income exclusions (such as those set forth in subsection (b)(5)(B)), or may establish another reasonable rent structure or amount.
(C)
Switching rent determination methods because of hardship circumstances.—
Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), in the case of a family that has elected to pay rent in the amount determined under subparagraph (B)(i), a public housing agency shall immediately provide for the family to pay rent in the amount determined under subparagraph (B)(ii) during the period for which such election was made upon a determination that the family is unable to pay the amount determined under subparagraph (B)(i) because of financial hardship, including—
(i)
situations in which the income of the family has decreased because of changed circumstances, loss of 2
2
 So in original. Probably should be “or”.
reduction of employment, death in the family, and reduction in or loss of income or other assistance;
(ii)
an increase, because of changed circumstances, in the family’s expenses for medical costs, child care, transportation, education, or similar items; and
(iii)
such other situations as may be determined by the agency.
(D)
Encouragement of self-sufficiency.—
The rental policy developed by each public housing agency shall encourage and reward employment and economic self-sufficiency.
(E)
Income reviews.—
Notwithstanding the second sentence of paragraph (1), in the case of families that are paying rent in the amount determined under subparagraph (B)(i), the agency shall review the income of such family not less than once every 3 years.
(3)
Minimum rental amount.—
(A)
Requirement.—
Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of this subsection, the method for rent determination elected pursuant to paragraph (2)(A) of this subsection by a family residing in public housing, section 1437f(o)(2) of this title, or section 206(d) of the Housing and Urban-Rural Recovery Act of 1983 (including paragraph (5) of such section), the following entities shall require the following families to pay a minimum monthly rental amount (which amount shall include any amount allowed for utilities) of not more than $50 per month, as follows:
(i)
Each public housing agency shall require the payment of such minimum monthly rental amount, which amount shall be determined by the agency, by—
(I)
each family residing in a dwelling unit in public housing by the agency;
(II)
each family who is assisted under the certificate or moderate rehabilitation program under section 1437f of this title; and
(III)
each family who is assisted under the voucher program under section 1437f of this title, and the agency shall reduce the monthly assistance payment on behalf of such family as may be necessary to ensure payment of such minimum monthly rental amount.
(ii)
The Secretary shall require each family who is assisted under any other program for rental assistance under section 1437f of this title to pay such minimum monthly rental amount, which amount shall be determined by the Secretary.
(B)
Exception for hardship circumstances.—
(i)
In general.—
Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), a public housing agency (or the Secretary, in the case of a family described in subparagraph (A)(ii)) shall immediately grant an exemption from application of the minimum monthly rental under such subparagraph to any family unable to pay such amount because of financial hardship, which shall include situations in which (I) the family has lost eligibility for or is awaiting an eligibility determination for a Federal, State, or local assistance program, including a family that includes a member who is an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence under the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.] who would be entitled to public benefits but for title IV of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 [8 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.]; (II) the family would be evicted as a result of the imposition of the minimum rent requirement under subparagraph (A); (III) the income of the family has decreased because of changed circumstance, including loss of employment; (IV) a death in the family has occurred; and (V) other situations as may be determined by the agency (or the Secretary, in the case of a family described in subparagraph (A)(ii)).
(ii)
Waiting period.—
If a resident requests a hardship exemption under this subparagraph and the public housing agency (or the Secretary, in the case of a family described in subparagraph (A)(ii)) reasonably determines the hardship to be of a temporary nature, an exemption shall not be granted during the 90-day period beginning upon the making of a request for the exemption. A resident may not be evicted during such 90-day period for nonpayment of rent. In such a case, if the resident thereafter demonstrates that the financial hardship is of a long-term basis, the agency (or the Secretary) shall retroactively exempt the resident from the applicability of the minimum rent requirement for such 90-day period.
(4)
Occupancy by police officers.—
(A)
In general.—
Subject to subparagraph (B) and notwithstanding any other provision of law, a public housing agency may, in accordance with the public housing agency plan for the agency, allow a police officer who is not otherwise eligible for residence in public housing to reside in a public housing dwelling unit. The number and location of units occupied by police officers under this paragraph and the terms and conditions of their tenancies shall be determined by the public housing agency.
(B)
Increased security.—
A public housing agency may take the actions authorized in subparagraph (A) only for the purpose of increasing security for the residents of a public housing project.
(C)
Definition.—
In this paragraph, the term “police officer” means any person determined by a public housing agency to be, during the period of residence of that person in public housing, employed on a full-time basis as a duly licensed professional police officer by a Federal, State, or local government or by any agency thereof (including a public housing agency having an accredited police force).
(5)
Occupancy by over-income families in certain public housing.—
(A)
Authority.—
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a public housing agency that owns or operates less than 250 units may, on a month-to-month basis, lease a dwelling unit in a public housing project to an over-income family in accordance with this paragraph, but only if there are no eligible families applying for housing assistance from the public housing agency for that month and the agency provides not less than 30-day public notice of the availability of such assistance.
(B)
Terms and conditions.—
The number and location of dwelling units of a public housing agency occupied under this paragraph by over-income families, and the terms and conditions of those tenancies, shall be determined by the public housing agency, except that—
(i)
notwithstanding paragraph (2), rent for a unit shall be in an amount that is not less than the costs to operate the unit;
(ii)
if an eligible family applies for residence after an over-income family moves in to the last available unit, the over-income family shall vacate the unit in accordance with notice of termination of tenancy provided by the agency, which shall be provided not less than 30 days before such termination; and
(iii)
if a unit is vacant and there is no one on the waiting list, the public housing agency may allow an over-income family to gain immediate occupancy in the unit, while simultaneously providing reasonable public notice and outreach with regard to availability of the unit.
(C)
Definition.—
For purposes of this paragraph, the term “over-income family” means an individual or family that is not a low-income family at the time of initial occupancy.
(6)
Reviews of family income.—
(A)
Frequency.—
Reviews of family income for purposes of this section shall be made—
(i)
in the case of all families, upon the initial provision of housing assistance for the family;
(ii)
annually thereafter, except as provided in paragraph (1) with respect to fixed-income families;
(iii)
upon the request of the family, at any time the income or deductions (under subsection (b)(5)) of the family change by an amount that is estimated to result in a decrease of 10 percent (or such lower amount as the Secretary may, by notice, establish, or permit the public housing agency or owner to establish) or more in annual adjusted income; and
(iv)
at any time the income or deductions (under subsection (b)(5)) of the family change by an amount that is estimated to result in an increase of 10 percent or more in annual adjusted income, or such other amount as the Secretary may by notice establish, except that any increase in the earned income of a family shall not be considered for purposes of this clause (except that earned income may be considered if the increase corresponds to previous decreases under clause (iii)), except that a public housing agency or owner may elect not to conduct such review in the last three months of a certification period.
(B)
In general.—
Reviews of family income for purposes of this section shall be subject to the provisions of section 3544 of this title.
(7)
Calculation of income.—
(A)
Use of current year income.—
In determining family income for initial occupancy or provision of housing assistance pursuant to clause (i) of paragraph (6)(A) or pursuant to reviews pursuant to clause (iii) or (iv) of such paragraph, a public housing agency or owner shall use the income of the family as estimated by the agency or owner for the upcoming year.
(B)
Use of prior year income.—
In determining family income for annual reviews pursuant to paragraph (6)(A)(ii), a public housing agency or owner shall, except as otherwise provided in this paragraph and paragraph (1), use the income of the family as determined by the agency or owner for the preceding year, taking into consideration any redetermination of income during such prior year pursuant to clause (iii) or (iv) of paragraph (6)(A).
(C)
Other income.—
In determining the income for any family based on the prior year’s income, with respect to prior year calculations of income not subject to subparagraph (B), a public housing agency or owner may make other adjustments as it considers appropriate to reflect current income.
(D)
Safe harbor.—
A public housing agency or owner may, to the extent such information is available to the public housing agency or owner, determine the family’s income prior to the application of any deductions based on timely income determinations made for purposes of other means-tested Federal public assistance programs (including the program for block grants to States for temporary assistance for needy families under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.], a program for Medicaid assistance under a State plan approved under title XIX of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.], and the supplemental nutrition assistance program (as such term is defined in section 2012 of title 7)). The Secretary shall, in consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies, develop electronic procedures to enable public housing agencies and owners to have access to such benefit determinations made by other means-tested Federal programs that the Secretary determines to have comparable reliability. Exchanges of such information shall be subject to the same limitations and tenant protections provided under section 3544 of this title with respect to information obtained under the requirements of section 303(i) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 503(i)).
(E)
Electronic income verification.—
The Secretary shall develop a mechanism for disclosing information to a public housing agency for the purpose of verifying the employment and income of individuals and families in accordance with section 453(j)(7)(E) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 653(j)(7)(E)), and shall ensure public housing agencies have access to information contained in the “Do Not Pay” system established by section 5 of the Improper Payments Elimination and Recovery Improvement Act of 2012 (Public Law 112–248; 126 Stat. 2392).1
(F)
PHA and owner compliance.—
A public housing agency or owner may not be considered to fail to comply with this paragraph or paragraph (6) due solely to any de minimis errors made by the agency or owner in calculating family incomes.
(8)
Carbon monoxide alarms.—
Each public housing agency shall ensure that carbon monoxide alarms or detectors are installed in each dwelling unit in public housing owned or operated by the public housing agency in a manner that meets or exceeds—
(A)
the standards described in chapters 9 and 11 of the 2018 publication of the International Fire Code, as published by the International Code Council; or
(B)
any other standards as may be adopted by the Secretary, including any relevant updates to the International Fire Code, through a notice published in the Federal Register.
(b)
Definition of terms under this chapter
When used in this chapter:
(1)
The term “low-income housing” means decent, safe, and sanitary dwellings assisted under this chapter. The term “public housing” means low-income housing, and all necessary appurtenances thereto, assisted under this chapter other than under section 1437f of this title. The term “public housing” includes dwelling units in a mixed finance project that are assisted by a public housing agency with capital or operating assistance. When used in reference to public housing, the term “low-income housing project” or “project” means (A) housing developed, acquired, or assisted by a public housing agency under this chapter, and (B) the improvement of any such housing.
(2)
(A)
The term “low-income families” means those families whose incomes do not exceed 80 per centum of the median income for the area, as determined by the Secretary with adjustments for smaller and larger families, except that the Secretary may establish income ceilings higher or lower than 80 per centum of the median for the area on the basis of the Secretary’s findings that such variations are necessary because of prevailing levels of construction costs or unusually high or low family incomes.
(B)
The term “very low-income families” means low-income families whose incomes do not exceed 50 per centum of the median family income for the area, as determined by the Secretary with adjustments for smaller and larger families, except that the Secretary may establish income ceilings higher or lower than 50 per centum of the median for the area on the basis of the Secretary’s findings that such variations are necessary because of unusually high or low family incomes.
(C)
The term extremely low-income families 3
3
 So in original. Probably should be “ ‘extremely low-income families’ ”.
means very low-income families whose incomes do not exceed the higher of—
(i)
the poverty guidelines updated periodically by the Department of Health and Human Services under the authority of section 9902(2) of this title applicable to a family of the size involved (except that this clause shall not apply in the case of public housing agencies or projects located in Puerto Rico or any other territory or possession of the United States); or
(ii)
30 percent of the median family income for the area, as determined by the Secretary, with adjustments for smaller and larger families (except that the Secretary may establish income ceilings higher or lower than 30 percent of the median for the area on the basis of the Secretary’s findings that such variations are necessary because of unusually high or low family incomes).
(D)
Such ceilings shall be established in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture for any rural area, as defined in section 1490 of this title
, taking into account the subsidy characteristics and types of programs to which such ceilings apply. In determining median incomes (of persons, families, or households) for an area or establishing any ceilings or limits based on income under this chapter, the Secretary shall determine or establish area median incomes and income ceilings and limits for Westchester and Rockland Counties, in the State of New York, as if each such county were an area not contained within the metropolitan statistical area in which it is located. In determining such area median incomes or establishing such income ceilings or limits for the portion of such metropolitan statistical area that does not include Westchester or Rockland Counties, the Secretary shall determine or establish area median incomes and income ceilings and limits as if such portion included Westchester and Rockland Counties. In determining areas that are designated as difficult development areas for purposes of the low-income housing tax credit, the Secretary shall include Westchester and Rockland Counties, New York, in the New York City metropolitan area.
(3)
Persons and families.—
(A)
Single persons.—
The term “families” includes families consisting of a single person in the case of (i) an elderly person, (ii) a disabled person, (iii) a displaced person, (iv) the remaining member of a tenant family, (v) a youth described in section 1437f(x)(2)(B) of this title, and (vi) any other single persons. In no event may any single person under clause (v) or (vi) of the first sentence be provided a housing unit assisted under this chapter of 2 or more bedrooms.
(B)
Families.—
The term “families” includes families with children and, in the cases of elderly families, near-elderly families, and disabled families, means families whose heads (or their spouses), or whose sole members, are elderly, near-elderly, or persons with disabilities, respectively. The term includes, in the cases of elderly families, near-elderly families, and disabled families, 2 or more elderly persons, near-elderly persons, or persons with disabilities living together, and 1 or more such persons living with 1 or more persons determined under the public housing agency plan to be essential to their care or well-being.
(C)
Absence of children.—
The temporary absence of a child from the home due to placement in foster care shall not be considered in determining family composition and family size.
(D)
Elderly person.—
The term “elderly person” means a person who is at least 62 years of age.
(E)
Person with disabilities.—
The term “person with disabilities” means a person who—
(i)
has a disability as defined in section 423 of this title,
(ii)
is determined, pursuant to regulations issued by the Secretary, to have a physical, mental, or emotional impairment which (I) is expected to be of long-continued and indefinite duration, (II) substantially impedes his or her ability to live independently, and (III) is of such a nature that such ability could be improved by more suitable housing conditions, or
(iii)
has a developmental disability as defined in section 15002 of this title.
Such term shall not exclude persons who have the disease of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or any conditions arising from the etiologic agent for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no individual shall be considered a person with disabilities, for purposes of eligibility for low-income housing under this subchapter, solely on the basis of any drug or alcohol dependence. The Secretary shall consult with other appropriate Federal agencies to implement the preceding sentence.
(F)
Displaced person.—
The term “displaced person” means a person displaced by governmental action, or a person whose dwelling has been extensively damaged or destroyed as a result of a disaster declared or otherwise formally recognized pursuant to Federal disaster relief laws.
(G)
Near-elderly person.—
The term “near-elderly person” means a person who is at least 50 years of age but below the age of 62.
(4)
Income.—
The term “income” means, with respect to a family, income received from all sources by each member of the household who is 18 years of age or older or is the head of household or spouse of the head of the household, plus unearned income by or on behalf of each dependent who is less than 18 years of age, as determined in accordance with criteria prescribed by the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, subject to the following requirements:
(A)
Included amounts.—
Such term includes recurring gifts and receipts, actual income from assets, and profit or loss from a business.
(B)
Excluded amounts.—
Such term does not include—
(i)
any imputed return on assets, except to the extent that net family assets exceed $50,000, except that such amount (as it may have been previously adjusted) shall be adjusted for inflation annually by the Secretary in accordance with an inflationary index selected by the Secretary;
(ii)
any amounts that would be eligible for exclusion under section 1613(a)(7) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1382b(a)(7));
(iii)
deferred disability benefits from the Department of Veterans Affairs that are received in a lump sum amount or in prospective monthly amounts;
(iv)
any expenses related to aid and attendance under section 1521 of title 38 to veterans who are in need of regular aid and attendance; and
(v)
exclusions from income as established by the Secretary by regulation or notice, or any amount required by Federal law to be excluded from consideration as income.
(C)
Earned income of students.—
Such term does not include—
(i)
earned income, up to an amount as the Secretary may by regulation establish, of any dependent earned during any period that such dependent is attending school or vocational training on a full-time basis; or
(ii)
any grant-in-aid or scholarship amounts related to such attendance used—
(I)
for the cost of tuition or books; or
(II)
in such amounts as the Secretary may allow, for the cost of room and board.
(D)
Educational savings accounts.—
Income shall be determined without regard to any amounts in or from, or any benefits from, any Coverdell education savings account under section 530 of title 26 or any qualified tuition program under section 529 of such title.
(E)
Recordkeeping.—
The Secretary may not require a public housing agency or owner to maintain records of any amounts excluded from income pursuant to this subparagraph.
(5)
Adjusted income.—
The term “adjusted income” means, with respect to a family, the amount (as determined by the public housing agency or owner) of the income of the members of the family residing in a dwelling unit or the persons on a lease, after any deductions from income as follows:
(A)
Elderly and disabled families.—
$525 in the case of any family that is an elderly family or a disabled family.
(B)
Minors, students, and persons with disabilities.—
$480 for each member of the family residing in the household (other than the head of the household or his or her spouse) who is less than 18 years of age or is attending school or vocational training on a full-time basis, or who is 18 years of age or older and is a person with disabilities.
(C)
Child care.—
Any reasonable child care expenses necessary to enable a member of the family to be employed or to further his or her education.
(D)
Health and medical expenses.—
The amount, if any, by which 10 percent of annual family income is exceeded by the sum of—
(i)
in the case of any elderly or disabled family, any unreimbursed health and medical care expenses; and
(ii)
any unreimbursed reasonable attendant care and auxiliary apparatus expenses for each handicapped member of the family, if determined necessary by the public housing agency or owner to enable any member of such family to be employed.
The Secretary shall, by regulation, provide hardship exemptions to the requirements of this subparagraph and subparagraph (C) for impacted families who demonstrate an inability to pay calculated rents because of financial hardship. Such regulations shall include a requirement to notify tenants regarding any changes to the determination of adjusted income pursuant to such subparagraphs based on the determination of the family’s claim of financial hardship exemptions required by the preceding sentence. Such regulations shall be promulgated in consultation with tenant organizations, industry participants, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, with an adequate comment period provided for interested parties.
(E)
Permissive deductions.—
Such additional deductions as a public housing agency may, at its discretion, establish, except that the Secretary shall establish procedures to ensure that such deductions do not materially increase Federal expenditures.
The Secretary shall annually calculate the amounts of the deductions under subparagraphs (A) and (B), as such amounts may have been previously calculated, by applying an inflationary factor as the Secretary shall, by regulation, establish, except that the actual deduction determined for each year shall be established by rounding such amount to the next lowest multiple of $25.
(6)
Public housing agency.—
(A)
In general.—
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term “public housing agency” means any State, county, municipality, or other governmental entity or public body (or agency or instrumentality thereof) which is authorized to engage in or assist in the development or operation of public housing, or a consortium of such entities or bodies as approved by the Secretary.
(B)
Section 1437f program.—
For purposes of the program for tenant-based assistance under section 1437f of this title, such term includes—
(i)
a consortia of public housing agencies that the Secretary determines has the capacity and capability to administer a program for assistance under such section in an efficient manner;
(ii)
any other public or private nonprofit entity that, upon the effective date under section 503(a) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, was administering any program for tenant-based assistance under section 1437f of this title (as in effect before the effective date of such Act), pursuant to a contract with the Secretary or a public housing agency; and
(iii)
with respect to any area in which no public housing agency has been organized or where the Secretary determines that a public housing agency is unwilling or unable to implement a program for tenant-based assistance 4
4
 So in original. Probably should be “assistance under”.
section 1437f of this title, or is not performing effectively—
(I)
the Secretary or another public or private nonprofit entity that by contract agrees to receive assistance amounts under section 1437f of this title and enter into housing assistance payments contracts with owners and perform the other functions of public housing agency under section 1437f of this title; or
(II)
notwithstanding any provision of State or local law, a public housing agency for another area that contracts with the Secretary to administer a program for housing assistance under section 1437f of this title, without regard to any otherwise applicable limitations on its area of operation.
(7)
The term “State” includes the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the territories and possessions of the United States, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
(8)
The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
(9)
Drug-related criminal activity.—
The term “drug-related criminal activity” means the illegal manufacture, sale, distribution, use, or possession with intent to manufacture, sell, distribute, or use, of a controlled substance (as such term is defined in section 802 of title 21).
(10)
Mixed-finance project.—
The term “mixed-finance project” means a public housing project that meets the requirements of section 1437z–7 of this title.
(11)
Public housing agency plan.—
The term “public housing agency plan” means the plan of a public housing agency prepared in accordance with section 1437c–1 of this title.
(12)
Capital fund.—
The term “Capital Fund” means the fund established under section 1437g(d) of this title.
(13)
Operating fund.—
The term “Operating Fund” means the fund established under section 1437g(e) of this title.
(c)
Definition of terms used in reference to public housing
When used in reference to public housing:
(1)
The term “development” means any or all undertakings necessary for planning, land acquisition, demolition, construction, or equipment, in connection with a low-income housing project. The term “development cost” comprises the costs incurred by a public housing agency in such undertakings and their necessary financing (including the payment of carrying charges), and in otherwise carrying out the development of such project, but does not include the costs associated with the demolition of or remediation of environmental hazards associated with public housing units that will not be replaced on the project site, or other extraordinary site costs as determined by the Secretary. Construction activity in connection with a low-income housing project may be confined to the reconstruction, remodeling, or repair of existing buildings.
(2)
The term “operation” means any or all undertakings appropriate for management, operation, services, maintenance, security (including the cost of security personnel), or financing in connection with a low-income housing proj­ect. The term also means the financing of tenant programs and services for families residing in low-income housing projects, particularly where there is maximum feasible participation of the tenants in the development and operation of such tenant programs and services. As used in this paragraph, the term “tenant programs and services” includes the development and maintenance of tenant organizations which participate in the management of low-income housing projects; the training of tenants to manage and operate such projects and the utilization of their services in project management and operation; counseling on household management, housekeeping, budgeting, money management, child care, and similar matters; advice as to resources for job training and placement, education, welfare, health, and other community services; services which are directly related to meeting tenant needs and providing a wholesome living environment; and referral to appropriate agencies in the community when necessary for the provision of such services. To the maximum extent available and appropriate, existing public and private agencies in the community shall be used for the provision of such services.
(3)
The term “acquisition cost” means the amount prudently required to be expended by a public housing agency in acquiring property for a low-income housing project.
(4)
The term “congregate housing” means low-rent housing with which there is connected a central dining facility where wholesome and economical meals can be served to occupants. Expenditures incurred by a public housing agency in the operation of a central dining facility in connection with congregate housing (other than the cost of providing food and service) shall be considered a cost of operation of the project.
(5)
The terms “group home” and “independent living facility” have the meanings given such terms in section 8013(k) of this title.
(d)
Availability of income matching information
(1)
Disclosure to PHA
(2)
Families covered
A family described in this paragraph is a family that resides in a dwelling unit—
(A)
that is a public housing dwelling unit;
(B)
for which tenant-based assistance is provided under section 1437f of this title,5
5
 So in original. The comma probably should be a semicolon.
or
(C)
for which project-based assistance is provided under section 1437f of this title, section 1437bb 1 of this title, or section 811.1
(Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, § 3, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title II, § 201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 654; amended Pub. L. 94–375, § 2(f), Aug. 3, 1976, 90 Stat. 1068; Pub. L. 95–557, title II, § 206(c), Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2091; Pub. L. 96–153, title II, § 202(a), Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1106; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, § 322(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 400; Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, §§ 202, 206(a)–(c)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1178, 1179; Pub. L. 98–479, title I, § 102(b)(1)–(3), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2221; Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §§ 102(a), 111, 170(c), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1821, 1823, 1867; renumbered title I and amended
cite as: 42 USC 1437a