U.S Code last checked for updates: Jun 15, 2024
§ 1437f.
Low-income housing assistance
(a)
Authorization for assistance payments
(b)
Other existing housing programs
(1)
In general.—
The Secretary is authorized to enter into annual contributions contracts with public housing agencies pursuant to which such agencies may enter into contracts to make assistance payments to owners of existing dwelling units in accordance with this section. In areas where no public housing agency has been organized or where the Secretary determines that a public housing agency is unable to implement the provisions of this section, the Secretary is authorized to enter into such contracts and to perform the other functions assigned to a public housing agency by this section.
(2)
The Secretary is authorized to enter into annual contributions contracts with public housing agencies for the purpose of replacing public housing transferred in accordance with subchapter II–A of this chapter. Each contract entered into under this subsection shall be for a term of not more than 60 months.
(c)
Contents and purposes of contracts for assistance payments; amount and scope of monthly assistance payments
(1)
(A)
An assistance contract entered into pursuant to this section shall establish the maximum monthly rent (including utilities and all maintenance and management charges) which the owner is entitled to receive for each dwelling unit with respect to which such assistance payments are to be made. The maximum monthly rent shall not exceed by more than 10 per centum the fair market rental established by the Secretary periodically but not less than annually for existing or newly constructed rental dwelling units of various sizes and types in the market area suitable for occupancy by persons assisted under this section, except that the maximum monthly rent may exceed the fair market rental (A) by more than 10 but not more than 20 per centum where the Secretary determines that special circumstances warrant such higher maximum rent or that such higher rent is necessary to the implementation of a housing strategy as defined in section 12705 of this title, or (B) by such higher amount as may be requested by a tenant and approved by the public housing agency in accordance with paragraph (3)(B). In the case of newly constructed and substantially rehabilitated units, the exception in the preceding sentence shall not apply to more than 20 per centum of the total amount of authority to enter into annual contributions contracts for such units which is allocated to an area and obligated with respect to any fiscal year beginning on or after October 1, 1980. Each fair market rental in effect under this subsection shall be adjusted to be effective on October 1 of each year to reflect changes, based on the most recent available data trended so the rentals will be current for the year to which they apply, of rents for existing or newly constructed rental dwelling units, as the case may be, of various sizes and types in the market area suitable for occupancy by persons assisted under this section. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, after October 12, 1977, the Secretary shall prohibit high-rise elevator projects for families with children unless there is no practical alternative. If units assisted under this section are exempt from local rent control while they are so assisted or otherwise, the maximum monthly rent for such units shall be reasonable in comparison with other units in the market area that are exempt from local rent control.
(B)
Fair market rentals for an area shall be published not less than annually by the Secretary on the site of the Department on the World Wide Web and in any other manner specified by the Secretary. Notice that such fair market rentals are being published shall be published in the Federal Register, and such fair market rentals shall become effective no earlier than 30 days after the date of such publication. The Secretary shall establish a procedure for public housing agencies and other interested parties to comment on such fair market rentals and to request, within a time specified by the Secretary, reevaluation of the fair market rentals in a jurisdiction before such rentals become effective. The Secretary shall cause to be published for comment in the Federal Register notices of proposed material changes in the methodology for estimating fair market rentals and notices specifying the final decisions regarding such proposed substantial methodological changes and responses to public comments.
(2)
(A)
The assistance contract shall provide for adjustment annually or more frequently in the maximum monthly rents for units covered by the contract to reflect changes in the fair market rentals established in the housing area for similar types and sizes of dwelling units or, if the Secretary determines, on the basis of a reasonable formula. However, where the maximum monthly rent, for a unit in a new construction, substantial rehabilitation, or moderate rehabilitation project, to be adjusted using an annual adjustment factor exceeds the fair market rental for an existing dwelling unit in the market area, the Secretary shall adjust the rent only to the extent that the owner demonstrates that the adjusted rent would not exceed the rent for an unassisted unit of similar quality, type, and age in the same market area, as determined by the Secretary. The immediately foregoing sentence shall be effective only during fiscal year 1995, fiscal year 1996 prior to April 26, 1996, and fiscal years 1997 and 1998, and during fiscal year 1999 and thereafter. Except for assistance under the certificate program, for any unit occupied by the same family at the time of the last annual rental adjustment, where the assistance contract provides for the adjustment of the maximum monthly rent by applying an annual adjustment factor and where the rent for a unit is otherwise eligible for an adjustment based on the full amount of the factor, 0.01 shall be subtracted from the amount of the factor, except that the factor shall not be reduced to less than 1.0. In the case of assistance under the certificate program, 0.01 shall be subtracted from the amount of the annual adjustment factor (except that the factor shall not be reduced to less than 1.0), and the adjusted rent shall not exceed the rent for a comparable unassisted unit of similar quality, type, and age in the market area. The immediately foregoing two sentences shall be effective only during fiscal year 1995, fiscal year 1996 prior to April 26, 1996, and fiscal years 1997 and 1998, and during fiscal year 1999 and thereafter. In establishing annual adjustment factors for units in new construction and substantial rehabilitation projects, the Secretary shall take into account the fact that debt service is a fixed expense. The immediately foregoing sentence shall be effective only during fiscal year 1998.
(B)
The contract shall further provide for the Secretary to make additional adjustments in the maximum monthly rent for units under contract to the extent he determines such adjustments are necessary to reflect increases in the actual and necessary expenses of owning and maintaining the units which have resulted from substantial general increases in real property taxes, utility rates, or similar costs which are not adequately compensated for by the adjustment in the maximum monthly rent authorized by subparagraph (A). The Secretary shall make additional adjustments in the maximum monthly rent for units under contract (subject to the availability of appropriations for contract amendments) to the extent the Secretary determines such adjustments are necessary to reflect increases in the actual and necessary expenses of owning and maintaining the units that have resulted from the expiration of a real property tax exemption. Where the Secretary determines that a project assisted under this section is located in a community where drug-related criminal activity is generally prevalent and the project’s operating, maintenance, and capital repair expenses have been substantially increased primarily as a result of the prevalence of such drug-related activity, the Secretary may (at the discretion of the Secretary and subject to the availability of appropriations for contract amendments for this purpose), on a project by project basis, provide adjustments to the maximum monthly rents, to a level no greater than 120 percent of the project rents, to cover the costs of maintenance, security, capital repairs, and reserves required for the owner to carry out a strategy acceptable to the Secretary for addressing the problem of drug-related criminal activity. Any rent comparability standard required under this paragraph may be waived by the Secretary to so implement the preceding sentence. The Secretary may (at the discretion of the Secretary and subject to the availability of appropriations for contract amendments), on a project by project basis for projects receiving project-based assistance, provide adjustments to the maximum monthly rents to cover the costs of evaluating and reducing lead-based paint hazards, as defined in section 4851b of this title.
(C)
Adjustments in the maximum rents under subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted units and unassisted units of similar quality, type, and age in the same market area, as determined by the Secretary. In implementing the limitation established under the preceding sentence, the Secretary shall establish regulations for conducting comparability studies for projects where the Secretary has reason to believe that the application of the formula adjustments under subparagraph (A) would result in such material differences. The Secretary shall conduct such studies upon the request of any owner of any project, or as the Secretary determines to be appropriate by establishing, to the extent practicable, a modified annual adjustment factor for such market area, as the Secretary shall designate, that is geographically smaller than the applicable housing area used for the establishment of the annual adjustment factor under subparagraph (A). The Secretary shall establish such modified annual adjustment factor on the basis of the results of a study conducted by the Secretary of the rents charged, and any change in such rents over the previous year, for assisted units and unassisted units of similar quality, type, and age in the smaller market area. Where the Secretary determines that such modified annual adjustment factor cannot be established or that such factor when applied to a particular project would result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted units and unassisted units of similar quality, type, and age in the same market area, the Secretary may apply an alternative methodology for conducting comparability studies in order to establish rents that are not materially different from rents charged for comparable unassisted units. If the Secretary or appropriate State agency does not complete and submit to the project owner a comparability study not later than 60 days before the anniversary date of the assistance contract under this section, the automatic annual adjustment factor shall be applied. The Secretary may not reduce the contract rents in effect on or after April 15, 1987, for newly constructed, substantially rehabilitated, or moderately rehabilitated projects assisted under this section (including projects assisted under this section as in effect prior to November 30, 1983
), unless the project has been refinanced in a manner that reduces the periodic payments of the owner. Any maximum monthly rent that has been reduced by the Secretary after
(3)
The amount of the monthly assistance payment with respect to any dwelling unit shall be the difference between the maximum monthly rent which the contract provides that the owner is to receive for the unit and the rent the family is required to pay under section 1437a(a) of this title.
(4)
The assistance contract shall provide that assistance payments may be made only with respect to a dwelling unit under lease for occupancy by a family determined to be a lower income family at the time it initially occupied such dwelling unit, except that such payments may be made with respect to unoccupied units for a period not exceeding sixty days (A) in the event that a family vacates a dwelling unit before the expiration date of the lease for occupancy or (B) where a good faith effort is being made to fill an unoccupied unit, and, subject to the provisions of the following sentence, such payments may be made, in the case of a newly constructed or substantially rehabilitated proj­ect, after such sixty-day period in an amount equal to the debt service attributable to such an unoccupied dwelling unit for a period not to exceed one year, if a good faith effort is being made to fill the unit and the unit provides decent, safe, and sanitary housing. No such payment may be made after such sixty-day period if the Secretary determines that the dwelling unit is in a project which provides the owner with revenues exceeding the costs incurred by such owner with respect to such project.
(5)
The Secretary shall take such steps as may be necessary, including the making of contracts for assistance payments in amounts in excess of the amounts required at the time of the initial renting of dwelling units, the reservation of annual contributions authority for the purpose of amending housing assistance contracts, or the allocation of a portion of new authorizations for the purpose of amending housing assistance contracts, to assure that assistance payments are increased on a timely basis to cover increases in maximum monthly rents or decreases in family incomes.
(6)
Redesignated (5).
(7)
Repealed. Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 550(a)(3)(C), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2609
(8)
(A)
Not less than one year before termination of any contract under which assistance payments are received under this section, other than a contract for tenant-based assistance under this section, an owner shall provide written notice to the Secretary and the tenants involved of the proposed termination. The notice shall also include a statement that, if the Congress makes funds available, the owner and the Secretary may agree to a renewal of the contract, thus avoiding termination, and that in the event of termination the Department of Housing and Urban Development will provide tenant-based rental assistance to all eligible residents, enabling them to choose the place they wish to rent, which is likely to include the dwelling unit in which they currently reside. Any contract covered by this paragraph that is renewed may be renewed for a period of up to 1 year or any number or years, with payments subject to the availability of appropriations for any year.
(B)
In the event the owner does not provide the notice required, the owner may not evict the tenants or increase the tenants’ rent payment until such time as the owner has provided the notice and 1 year has elapsed. The Secretary may allow the owner to renew the terminating contract for a period of time sufficient to give tenants 1 year of advance notice under such terms and conditions as the Secretary may require.
(C)
Any notice under this paragraph shall also comply with any additional requirements established by the Secretary.
(D)
For purposes of this paragraph, the term “termination” means the expiration of the assistance contract or an owner’s refusal to renew the assistance contract, and such term shall include termination of the contract for business reasons.
(d)
Required provisions and duration of contracts for assistance payments; waiver of limitation
(1)
Contracts to make assistance payments entered into by a public housing agency with an owner of existing housing units shall provide (with respect to any unit) that—
(A)
the selection of tenants shall be the function of the owner, subject to the annual contributions contract between the Secretary and the agency, except that with respect to the certificate and moderate rehabilitation programs only, for the purpose of selecting families to be assisted, the public housing agency may establish local preferences, consistent with the public housing agency plan submitted under section 1437c–1 of this title by the public housing agency;
(B)
(i)
the lease between the tenant and the owner shall be for at least one year or the term of such contract, whichever is shorter, and shall contain other terms and conditions specified by the Secretary;
(ii)
during the term of the lease, the owner shall not terminate the tenancy except for serious or repeated violation of the terms and conditions of the lease, for violation of applicable Federal, State, or local law, or for other good cause;
(iii)
during the term of the lease, any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other tenants, any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of their residences by persons residing in the immediate vicinity of the premises, or any drug-related criminal activity on or near such premises, engaged in by a tenant of any unit, any member of the tenant’s household, or any guest or other person under the tenant’s control, shall be cause for termination of tenancy;
(iv)
any termination of tenancy shall be preceded by the owner’s provision of written notice to the tenant specifying the grounds for such action; and
(v)
it shall be cause for termination of the tenancy of a tenant if such tenant—
(I)
is fleeing to avoid prosecution, or custody or confinement after conviction, under the laws of the place from which the individual flees, for a crime, or attempt to commit a crime, which is a felony under the laws of the place from which the individual flees, or which, in the case of the State of New Jersey, is a high misdemeanor under the laws of such State; or
(II)
is violating a condition of probation or parole imposed under Federal or State law;
(C)
maintenance and replacement (including redecoration) shall be in accordance with the standard practice for the building concerned as established by the owner and agreed to by the agency; and
(D)
the agency and the owner shall carry out such other appropriate terms and conditions as may be mutually agreed to by them.
(2)
(A)
Each contract for an existing structure entered into under this section shall be for a term of not less than one month nor more than one hundred and eighty months. The Secretary shall permit public housing agencies to enter into contracts for assistance payments of less than 12 months duration in order to avoid disruption in assistance to eligible families if the annual contributions contract is within 1 year of its expiration date.
(B)
(i)
In determining the amount of assistance provided under an assistance contract for project-based assistance under this paragraph or a contract for assistance for housing constructed or substantially rehabilitated pursuant to assistance provided under subsection (b)(2) of this section (as such subsection existed immediately before October 1, 1983), the Secretary may consider and annually adjust, with respect to such project, for the cost of employing or otherwise retaining the services of one or more service coordinators under section 661 1
1
 So in original. Probably should be section “671”.
of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [42 U.S.C. 13631] to coordinate the provision of any services within the project for residents of the project who are elderly or disabled families.
(ii)
The budget authority available under section 1437c(c) of this title for assistance under this section is authorized to be increased by $15,000,000 on or after October 1, 1992, and by $15,000,000 on or after October 1, 1993. Amounts made available under this subparagraph shall be used to provide additional amounts under annual contributions contracts for assistance under this section which shall be made available through assistance contracts only for the purpose of providing service coordinators under clause (i) for projects receiving project-based assistance under this paragraph and to provide additional amounts under contracts for assistance for projects constructed or substantially rehabilitated pursuant to assistance provided under subsection (b)(2) of this section (as such subsection existed immediately before October 1, 1983) only for such purpose.
(C)
An assistance contract for project-based assistance under this paragraph shall provide that the owner shall ensure and maintain compliance with subtitle C of title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [42 U.S.C. 13601 et seq.] and any regulations issued under such subtitle.
(D)
An owner of a covered section 8 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] housing project (as such term is defined in section 659 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [42 U.S.C. 13619]) may give preference for occupancy of dwelling units in the project, and reserve units for occupancy, in accordance with subtitle D of title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [42 U.S.C. 13611 et seq.].
(3)
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, with the approval of the Secretary the public housing agency administering a contract under this section with respect to existing housing units may exercise all management and maintenance responsibilities with respect to those units pursuant to a contract between such agency and the owner of such units.
(4)
A public housing agency that serves more than one unit of general local government may, at the discretion of the agency, in allocating assistance under this section, give priority to disabled families that are not elderly families.
(5)
Calculation of limit.—
Any contract entered into under section 514 of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997 shall be excluded in computing the limit on project-based assistance under this subsection.
(6)
Treatment of common areas.—
The Secretary may not provide any assistance amounts pursuant to an existing contract for project-based assistance under this section for a housing project and may not enter into a new or renewal contract for such assistance for a project unless the owner of the project provides consent, to such local law enforcement agencies as the Secretary determines appropriate, for law enforcement officers of such agencies to enter common areas of the project at any time and without advance notice upon a determination of probable cause by such officers that criminal activity is taking place in such areas.
(e)
Restrictions on contracts for assistance payments
(1)
Nothing in this chapter shall be deemed to prohibit an owner from pledging, or offering as security for any loan or obligation, a contract for assistance payments entered into pursuant to this section: Provided, That such security is in connection with a project constructed or rehabilitated pursuant to authority granted in this section, and the terms of the financing or any refinancing have been approved by the Secretary.
(2)
Repealed. Pub. L. 101–625, title II, § 289(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4128
(f)
Definitions
As used in this section—
(1)
the term “owner” means any private person or entity, including a cooperative, an agency of the Federal Government, or a public housing agency, having the legal right to lease or sublease dwelling units;
(2)
the terms “rent” or “rental” mean, with respect to members of a cooperative, the charges under the occupancy agreements between such members and the cooperative;
(3)
the term “debt service” means the required payments for principal and interest made with respect to a mortgage secured by housing assisted under this chapter;
(4)
the term “participating jurisdiction” means a State or unit of general local government designated by the Secretary to be a participating jurisdiction under title II of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12721 et seq.];
(5)
the term “drug-related criminal activity” means the illegal manufacture, sale, distribution, use, or possession with intent to manufacture, sell, distribute, or use, of a controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of title 21);
(6)
the term “project-based assistance” means rental assistance under subsection (b) that is attached to the structure pursuant to subsection (d)(2) or (o)(13); and
(7)
the term “tenant-based assistance” means rental assistance under subsection (o) that is not project-based assistance and that provides for the eligible family to select suitable housing and to move to other suitable housing.
(g)
Regulations applicable for implementation of assistance payments
(h)
Nonapplicability of inconsistent provisions to contracts for assistance payments
(i)
Receipt of assistance by public housing agency under other law not to be considered
(j)
Carbon monoxide alarms
Each owner of a dwelling unit receiving project-based assistance under this section shall ensure that carbon monoxide alarms or detectors are installed in the dwelling unit in a manner that meets or exceeds—
(1)
the standards described in chapters 9 and 11 of the 2018 publication of the International Fire Code, as published by the International Code Council; or
(2)
any other standards as may be adopted by the Secretary, including any relevant updates to the International Fire Code, through a notice published in the Federal Register.
(k)
Verification of income
(l)
, (m) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, § 209(a)(5)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1183
(n)
Repealed. Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 550(a)(7), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2609
(o)
Voucher program
(1)
Authority
(A)
In general
(B)
Establishment of payment standard
(C)
Set-aside
(D)
Approval
(E)
Review
The Secretary—
(i)
shall monitor rent burdens and review any payment standard that results in a significant percentage of the families occupying units of any size paying more than 30 percent of adjusted income for rent; and
(ii)
may require a public housing agency to modify the payment standard of the public housing agency based on the results of that review.
(2)
Amount of monthly assistance payment
Subject to the requirement under section 1437a(a)(3) of this title (relating to minimum rental amount), the monthly assistance payment for a family receiving assistance under this subsection shall be determined as follows:
(A)
Tenant-based assistance; rent not exceeding payment standard
For a family receiving tenant-based assistance, if the rent for the family (including the amount allowed for tenant-paid utilities) does not exceed the applicable payment standard established under paragraph (1), the monthly assistance payment for the family shall be equal to the amount by which the rent (including the amount allowed for tenant-paid utilities) exceeds the greatest of the following amounts, rounded to the nearest dollar:
(i)
30 percent of the monthly adjusted income of the family.
(ii)
10 percent of the monthly income of the family.
(iii)
If the family is receiving payments for welfare assistance from a public agency and a part of those payments, adjusted in accordance with the actual housing costs of the family, is specifically designated by that agency to meet the housing costs of the family, the portion of those payments that is so designated.
(B)
Tenant-based assistance; rent exceeding payment standard
(C)
Families receiving project-based assistance
(D)
Utility allowance
(i)
General
(ii)
Exception for families in including persons with disabilities
(3)
40 percent limit
(4)
Eligible families
To be eligible to receive assistance under this subsection, a family shall, at the time a family initially receives assistance under this subsection, be a low-income family that is—
(A)
a very low-income family;
(B)
a family previously assisted under this subchapter;
(C)
a low-income family that meets eligibility criteria specified by the public housing agency;
(D)
a family that qualifies to receive a voucher in connection with a homeownership program approved under title IV of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act; or
(E)
a family that qualifies to receive a voucher under section 223 or 226 of the Low-Income Housing Preservation and Resident Homeownership Act of 1990 [12 U.S.C. 4113, 4116].
(5)
Reviews of family income
(A)
In general
(B)
Procedures
(6)
Selection of families and disapproval of owners
(A)
Preferences
(i)
Authority to establish
(ii)
Content
(B)
Selection of tenants
(C)
PHA disapproval of owners
In addition to other grounds authorized by the Secretary, a public housing agency may elect not to enter into a housing assistance payments contract under this subsection with an owner who refuses, or has a history of refusing, to take action to terminate tenancy for activity engaged in by the tenant, any member of the tenant’s household, any guest, or any other person under the control of any member of the household that—
(i)
threatens the health or safety of, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by, other tenants or employees of the public housing agency, owner, or other manager of the housing;
(ii)
threatens the health or safety of, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the residences by, persons residing in the immediate vicinity of the premises; or
(iii)
is drug-related or violent criminal activity.
(7)
Leases and tenancy
Each housing assistance payment contract entered into by the public housing agency and the owner of a dwelling unit—
(A)
shall provide that the lease between the tenant and the owner shall be for a term of not less than 1 year, except that the public housing agency may approve a shorter term for an initial lease between the tenant and the dwelling unit owner if the public housing agency determines that such shorter term would improve housing opportunities for the tenant and if such shorter term is considered to be a prevailing local market practice;
(B)
shall provide that the dwelling unit owner shall offer leases to tenants assisted under this subsection that—
(i)
are in a standard form used in the locality by the dwelling unit owner; and
(ii)
contain terms and conditions that—
(I)
are consistent with State and local law; and
(II)
apply generally to tenants in the property who are not assisted under this section;
(C)
shall provide that during the term of the lease, the owner shall not terminate the tenancy except for serious or repeated violation of the terms and conditions of the lease, for violation of applicable Federal, State, or local law, or for other good cause, and in the case of an owner who is an immediate successor in interest pursuant to foreclosure during the term of the lease vacating the property prior to sale shall not constitute other good cause, except that the owner may terminate the tenancy effective on the date of transfer of the unit to the owner if the owner—
(i)
will occupy the unit as a primary residence; and
(ii)
has provided the tenant a notice to vacate at least 90 days before the effective date of such notice.; 3
3
 So in original.
(D)
shall provide that during the term of the lease, any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other tenants, any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of their residences by persons residing in the immediate vicinity of the premises, or any violent or drug-related criminal activity on or near such premises, engaged in by a tenant of any unit, any member of the tenant’s household, or any guest or other person under the tenant’s control, shall be cause for termination of tenancy;
(E)
shall provide that any termination of tenancy under this subsection shall be preceded by the provision of written notice by the owner to the tenant specifying the grounds for that action, and any relief shall be consistent with applicable State and local law; and
(F)
may include any addenda required by the Secretary to set forth the provisions of this subsection. In the case of any foreclosure on any federally-related mortgage loan (as that term is defined in section 2602 of title 12) or on any residential real property in which a recipient of assistance under this subsection resides, the immediate successor in interest in such property pursuant to the foreclosure shall assume such interest subject to the lease between the prior owner and the tenant and to the housing assistance payments contract between the prior owner and the public housing agency for the occupied unit, except that this provision and the provisions related to foreclosure in subparagraph (C) shall not shall not 3 affect any State or local law that provides longer time periods or other additional protections for tenants.
(8)
Inspection of units by PHAs
(A)
Initial inspection
(i)
In general
(ii)
Correction of non-life-threatening conditions
(iii)
Use of alternative inspection method for interim period
(B)
Housing quality standards
The housing quality standards under this subparagraph are standards for safe and habitable housing established—
(i)
by the Secretary for purposes of this subsection; or
(ii)
by local housing codes or by codes adopted by public housing agencies that—
(I)
meet or exceed housing quality standards, except that the Secretary may waive the requirement under this subclause to significantly increase access to affordable housing and to expand housing opportunities for families assisted under this subsection, except where such waiver could adversely affect the health or safety of families assisted under this subsection; and
(II)
do not severely restrict housing choice 4
4
 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.
(C)
Inspection
(D)
Biennial inspections
(i)
Requirement
(ii)
Use of alternative inspection method
(iii)
Records
(iv)
Mixed-finance properties
(E)
Alternative inspection method
An inspection of a property shall qualify as an alternative inspection method for purposes of this subparagraph if—
(i)
the inspection was conducted pursuant to requirements under a Federal, State, or local housing program (including the Home investment partnership program under title II of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12721 et seq.] and the low-income housing tax credit program under section 42 of title 26); and
(ii)
pursuant to such inspection, the property was determined to meet the standards or requirements regarding housing quality or safety applicable to properties assisted under such program, and, if a non-Federal standard or requirement was used, the public housing agency has certified to the Secretary that such standard or requirement provides the same (or greater) protection to occupants of dwelling units meeting such standard or requirement as would the housing quality standards under subparagraph (B).
(F)
Interim inspections
Upon notification to the public housing agency, by a family (on whose behalf tenant-based rental assistance is provided under this subsection) or by a government official, that the dwelling unit for which such assistance is provided does not comply with the housing quality standards under subparagraph (B), the public housing agency shall inspect the dwelling unit—
(i)
in the case of any condition that is life-threatening, within 24 hours after the agency’s receipt of such notification, unless waived by the Secretary in extraordinary circumstances; and
(ii)
in the case of any condition that is not life-threatening, within a reasonable time frame, as determined by the Secretary.
(G)
Inspection guidelines
(9)
Vacated units
(10)
Rent
(A)
Reasonableness
(B)
Negotiations
(C)
Units exempt from local rent control
(D)
Timely payments
(E)
Penalties
(F)
Tax credit projects
In the case of a dwelling unit receiving tax credits pursuant to section 42 of title 26 or for which assistance is provided under subtitle A of title II of the Cranston Gonzalez 5
5
 So in original. Probably should be “Cranston-Gonzalez”.
National Affordable Housing Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12741 et seq.], for which a housing assistance contract not subject to paragraph (13) of this subsection is established, rent reasonableness shall be determined as otherwise provided by this paragraph, except that—
(i)
comparison with rent for units in the private, unassisted local market shall not be required if the rent is equal to or less than the rent for other comparable units receiving such tax credits or assistance in the project that are not occupied by families assisted with tenant-based assistance under this subsection; and
(ii)
the rent shall not be considered reasonable for purposes of this paragraph if it exceeds the greater of—
(I)
the rents charged for other comparable units receiving such tax credits or assistance in the project that are not occupied by families assisted with tenant-based assistance under this subsection; and
(II)
the payment standard established by the public housing agency for a unit of the size involved.
(11)
Leasing of units owned by PHA
(A)
Inspections and rent determinations
(B)
Units owned by PHA
(12)
Assistance for rental of manufactured housing
(A)
In general
(B)
Rent calculation
(i)
Charges included
(ii)
Payment standard
(iii)
Monthly assistance payment
(13)
PHA project-based assistance
(A)
In general
(B)
Percentage limitation
(i)
In general
(ii)
Exception
(C)
Consistency with PHA plan and other goals
A public housing agency may approve a housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph only if the contract is consistent with—
(i)
the public housing agency plan for the agency approved under section 1437c–1 of this title; and
(ii)
the goal of deconcentrating poverty and expanding housing and economic opportunities.
(D)
Income-mixing requirement
(i)
In general
(ii)
Exceptions
(I)
Certain families
(II)
Certain areas
(III)
Certain contracts
(IV)
Certain properties
(iii)
Additional monitoring and oversight requirements
(E)
Resident choice requirement
A housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph shall provide as follows:
(i)
Mobility
(ii)
Continued assistance
(F)
Contract term
(G)
Extension of contract term
(H)
Rent calculation
(I)
Rent adjustments
A housing assistance payments contract pursuant to this paragraph shall provide for rent adjustments, except that—
(i)
the adjusted rent for any unit assisted shall be reasonable in comparison with rents charged for comparable dwelling units in the private, unassisted, local market and may not exceed the maximum rent permitted under subparagraph (H), except that the contract may provide that the maximum rent permitted for a dwelling unit shall not be less than the initial rent for the dwelling unit under the initial housing assistance payments contract covering the unit; and
(ii)
the provisions of subsection (c)(2)(C) shall not apply.
(J)
Tenant selection
(K)
Vacated units
Notwithstanding paragraph (9), a housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph may provide as follows:
(i)
Payment for vacant units
(ii)
Reduction of contract
Eligible applicants for assistance under this subsection may enforce provisions authorized by this subparagraph.
(L)
Use in cooperative housing and elevator buildings
A public housing agency may enter into a housing assistance payments contract under this paragraph with respect to—
(i)
dwelling units in cooperative housing; and
(ii)
notwithstanding subsection (c), dwelling units in a high-rise elevator project, including such a project that is occupied by families with children, without review and approval of the contract by the Secretary.
(M)
Reviews
(i)
Subsidy layering
(ii)
Environmental review
(14)
Inapplicability to tenant-based assistance
(15)
Homeownership option
(A)
In general
(B)
Alternative administration
(16)
Rental vouchers for relocation of witnesses and victims of crime
(A)
Witnesses
(B)
Victims of crime
(i)
In general
(ii)
Notice
(17)
Deed restrictions
(18)
Rental assistance for assisted living facilities
(A)
In general
(B)
Rent calculation
(i)
Charges included
(ii)
Payment standard
(iii)
Monthly assistance payment
(C)
Definition
(19)
Rental vouchers for Veterans Affairs supported housing program
(A)
Set aside
(B)
Amount
The amount specified in this subparagraph is—
(i)
for fiscal year 2007, the amount necessary to provide 500 vouchers for rental assistance under this subsection;
(ii)
for fiscal year 2008, the amount necessary to provide 1,000 vouchers for rental assistance under this subsection;
(iii)
for fiscal year 2009, the amount necessary to provide 1,500 vouchers for rental assistance under this subsection;
(iv)
for fiscal year 2010, the amount necessary to provide 2,000 vouchers for rental assistance under this subsection; and
(v)
for fiscal year 2011, the amount necessary to provide 2,500 vouchers for rental assistance under this subsection.
(C)
Funding through incremental assistance
(D)
Veteran defined
(20)
Collection of utility data
(A)
Publication
(B)
Use of data
The Secretary shall provide such data in a manner that—
(i)
avoids unnecessary administrative burdens for public housing agencies and owners; and
(ii)
protects families in various unit sizes and building types, and using various utilities, from high rent and utility cost burdens relative to income.
(21)
Carbon monoxide alarms
Each dwelling unit receiving tenant-based assistance or project-based assistance under this subsection shall have carbon monoxide alarms or detectors installed in the dwelling unit in a manner that meets or exceeds—
(A)
the standards described in chapters 9 and 11 of the 2018 publication of the International Fire Code, as published by the International Code Council; or
(B)
any other standards as may be adopted by the Secretary, including any relevant updates to the International Fire Code, through a notice published in the Federal Register.
(p)
Shared housing for elderly and handicapped
(q)
Administrative fees
(1)
Fee for ongoing costs of administration
(A)
In general
(B)
Fiscal year 1999
(i)
Calculation
For fiscal year 1999, the fee for each month for which a dwelling unit is covered by an assistance contract shall be—
(I)
in the case of a public housing agency that, on an annual basis, is administering a program for not more than 600 dwelling units, 7.65 percent of the base amount; and
(II)
in the case of an agency that, on an annual basis, is administering a program for more than 600 dwelling units (aa) for the first 600 units, 7.65 percent of the base amount, and (bb) for any additional dwelling units under the program, 7.0 percent of the base amount.
(ii)
Base amount
For purposes of this subparagraph, the base amount shall be the higher of—
(I)
the fair market rental established under subsection (c) of this section (as in effect immediately before the effective date under section 503(a) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998) for fiscal year 1993 for a 2-bedroom existing rental dwelling unit in the market area of the agency, and
(II)
the amount that is the lesser of (aa) such fair market rental for fiscal year 1994, or (bb) 103.5 percent of the amount determined under clause (i),
 adjusted based on changes in wage data or other objectively measurable data that reflect the costs of administering the program, as determined by the Secretary. The Secretary may require that the base amount be not less than a minimum amount and not more than a maximum amount.
(C)
Subsequent fiscal years
(D)
Increase
(E)
Decrease
(2)
Fee for preliminary expenses
The Secretary shall also establish reasonable fees (as determined by the Secretary) for—
(A)
the costs of preliminary expenses, in the amount of $500, for a public housing agency, except that such fee shall apply to an agency only in the first year that the agency administers a tenant-based assistance program under this section, and only if, immediately before the effective date under section 503(a) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, the agency was not administering a tenant-based assistance program under this chapter (as in effect immediately before such effective date), in connection with its initial increment of assistance received;
(B)
the costs incurred in assisting families who experience difficulty (as determined by the Secretary) in obtaining appropriate housing under the programs; and
(C)
extraordinary costs approved by the Secretary.
(3)
Transfer of fees in cases of concurrent geographical jurisdiction
(4)
Applicability
(5)
Supplements for administering assistance for youth aging out of foster care
(r)
Portability
(1)
In general.—
(A)
Any family receiving tenant-based assistance under subsection (o) may receive such assistance to rent an eligible dwelling unit if the dwelling unit to which the family moves is within any area in which a program is being administered under this section.
(B)
(i)
Notwithstanding subparagraph (A) and subject to any exceptions established under clause (ii) of this subparagraph, a public housing agency may require that any family not living within the jurisdiction of the public housing agency at the time the family applies for assistance from the agency shall, during the 12-month period beginning
on the date of initial receipt of housing assistance made available on behalf of the family from such agency, lease and occupy an eligible dwelling unit located within the jurisdiction served by the agency.
(ii)
The Secretary may establish such exceptions to the authority of public housing agencies established under clause (i).
(2)
The public housing agency having authority with respect to the dwelling unit to which a family moves under this subsection shall have the responsibility of carrying out the provisions of this subsection with respect to the family.
(3)
In providing assistance under subsection (o) for any fiscal year, the Secretary shall give consideration to any reduction in the number of resident families incurred by a public housing agency in the preceding fiscal year as a result of the provisions of this subsection. The Secretary shall establish procedures for the compensation of public housing agencies that issue vouchers to families that move into or out of the jurisdiction of the public housing agency under portability procedures. The Secretary may reserve amounts available for assistance under subsection (o) to compensate those public housing agencies.
(4)
The provisions of this subsection may not be construed to restrict any authority of the Secretary under any other provision of law to provide for the portability of assistance under this section.
(5)
Lease violations.—
A family may not receive a voucher from a public housing agency and move to another jurisdiction under the tenant-based assistance program if the family has moved out of the assisted dwelling unit of the family in violation of a lease, except that a family may receive a voucher from a public housing agency and move to another jurisdiction under the tenant-based assistance program if the family has complied with all other obligations of the section 8 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] program and has moved out of the assisted dwelling unit in order to protect the health or safety of an individual who is or has been the victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking and who reasonably believed he or she was imminently threatened by harm from further violence if he or she remained in the assisted dwelling unit.
(s)
Prohibition of denial of certificates and vouchers to residents of public housing
(t)
Enhanced vouchers
(1)
In general
Enhanced voucher assistance under this subsection for a family shall be voucher assistance under subsection (o), except that under such enhanced voucher assistance—
(A)
subject only to subparagraph (D), the assisted family shall pay as rent no less than the amount the family was paying on the date of the eligibility event for the project in which the family was residing on such date;
(B)
the assisted family may elect to remain in the same project in which the family was residing on the date of the eligibility event for the project, and if, during any period the family makes such an election and continues to so reside, the rent for the dwelling unit of the family in such project exceeds the applicable payment standard established pursuant to subsection (o) for the unit, the amount of rental assistance provided on behalf of the family shall be determined using a payment standard that is equal to the rent for the dwelling unit (as such rent may be increased from time-to-time), subject to paragraph (10)(A) of subsection (o) and any other reasonable limit prescribed by the Secretary, except that a limit shall not be considered reasonable for purposes of this subparagraph if it adversely affects such assisted families;
(C)
subparagraph (B) of this paragraph shall not apply and the payment standard for the dwelling unit occupied by the family shall be determined in accordance with subsection (o) if—
(i)
the assisted family moves, at any time, from such project; or
(ii)
the voucher is made available for use by any family other than the original family on behalf of whom the voucher was provided; and
(D)
if the annual adjusted income of the assisted family declines to a significant extent, the percentage of annual adjusted income paid by the family for rent shall not exceed the greater of 30 percent or the percentage of annual adjusted income paid at the time of the eligibility event for the project.
(2)
Eligibility event
(3)
Treatment of enhanced vouchers provided under other authority
(A)
In general
(B)
Identification of other authority
The authority specified in this subparagraph is the authority under—
(i)
the 10th, 11th, and 12th provisos under the “Preserving Existing Housing Investment” account in title II of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104–204; 110 Stat. 2884), pursuant to such provisos, the first proviso under the “Housing Certificate Fund” account in title II of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105–65; 111 Stat. 1351), or the first proviso under the “Housing Certificate Fund” account in title II of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1999 (Public Law 105–276; 112 Stat. 2469); and
(ii)
paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 515(c) of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997 (42 U.S.C. 1437f note), as in effect before October 20, 1999.
(4)
Authorization of appropriations
(u)
Assistance for residents of rental rehabilitation projects
In the case of low-income families living in rental projects rehabilitated under section 1437o6
6
 See References in Text note below.
of this title or section 1490m of this title before rehabilitation—
(1)
vouchers under this section shall be made for families who are required to move out of their units because of the physical rehabilitation activities or because of overcrowding;
(2)
at the discretion of each public housing agency or other agency administering the allocation of assistance or vouchers under this section may be made for families who would have to pay more than 30 percent of their adjusted income for rent after rehabilitation whether they choose to remain in, or to move from, the project; and
(3)
the Secretary shall allocate assistance for vouchers under this section to ensure that sufficient resources are available to address the physical or economic displacement, or potential economic displacement, of existing tenants pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2).
(v)
Extension of expiring contracts
(w)
Repealed. Pub. L. 106–74, title V, § 531(d)(2), Oct. 20, 1999, 113 Stat. 1116
(x)
Family unification
(1)
Increase in budget authority
(2)
Use of funds
(3)
Allocation
(A)
In general
(B)
Assistance for youth aging out of foster care
(4)
Coordination between public housing agencies and public child welfare agencies
The Secretary shall, not later than the expiration of the 180-day period beginning on July 29, 2016, and after consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies, issue guidance to improve coordination between public housing agencies and public child welfare agencies in carrying out the program under this subsection, which shall provide guidance on—
(A)
identifying eligible recipients for assistance under this subsection and establishing a point of contact at public housing agencies to ensure that public housing agencies receive appropriate referrals regarding eligible recipients;
(B)
coordinating with other local youth and family providers in the community and participating in the Continuum of Care program established under subtitle C of title IV of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11381 et seq.);
(C)
implementing housing strategies to assist eligible families and youth;
(D)
aligning system goals to improve outcomes for families and youth and reducing lapses in housing for families and youth; and
(E)
identifying resources that are available to eligible families and youth to provide supportive services available through parts B and E of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 621 et seq.; 670 et seq.) or that the head of household of a family or youth may be entitled to receive under section 477 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 677).
(5)
Requirements for assistance for youth aging out of foster care
Assistance provided under this subsection for an eligible youth pursuant to paragraph (2)(B) shall be subject to the following requirements:
(A)
Requirements to extend assistance
(i)
Participation in family self-sufficiency
(ii)
Education, workforce development, or employment
In the case of a public housing agency that is providing such assistance under this subsection on behalf of an eligible youth and that is not carrying out a family self-sufficiency program under section 1437u of this title, or is carrying out such a program in which the youth has been unable to enroll, the agency shall, subject only to the availability of such assistance, extend the provision of such assistance for two successive 12-month periods, after the period referred to in paragraph (2)(B), but only if for not less than 9 months of the 12-month period preceding each such extension the youth was—
(I)
engaged in obtaining a recognized postsecondary credential or a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent;
(II)
enrolled in an institution of higher education, as such term is defined in section 1001(a) of title 20 and including the institutions described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 1002(a)(1) of title 20; or
(III)
participating in a career pathway, as such term is defined in section 3102 of title 29.
 Notwithstanding any other provision of this clause, a public housing agency shall consider employment as satisfying the requirements under this subparagraph.
(iii)
Exceptions
Notwithstanding clauses (i) and (ii), a public housing agency that is providing such assistance under this subsection on behalf of an eligible youth shall extend the provision of such assistance for up to 24 months beyond the period referred to in paragraph (2)(B), and clauses (i) and (ii) of this subparagraph shall not apply, if the eligible youth certifies that he or she is—
(I)
a parent or other household member responsible for the care of a dependent child under the age of 6 or for the care of an incapacitated person;
(II)
a person who is regularly and actively participating in a drug addiction or alcohol treatment and rehabilitation program; or
(III)
a person who is incapable of complying with the requirement under clause (i) or (ii), as applicable, due to a documented medical condition.
(iv)
Verification of compliance
(B)
Supportive services
(i)
Eligibility
(ii)
Information
(C)
Applicability to Moving to Work agencies
(D)
Termination of vouchers upon turn-over
(E)
Reports
(i)
In general
The Secretary shall require each public housing agency that provides such assistance under this subsection in any fiscal year to submit a report to the Secretary for such fiscal year that—
(I)
specifies the number of persons on whose behalf such assistance under this subsection was provided during such fiscal year;
(II)
specifies the number of persons who applied during such fiscal year for such assistance under this subsection, but were not provided such assistance, and provides a brief identification in each instance of the reason why the public housing agency was unable to award such assistance; and
(III)
describes how the public housing agency communicated or collaborated with public child welfare agencies to collect such data.
(ii)
Information collections
(F)
Consultation
(6)
Definitions
For purposes of this subsection:
(A)
Applicant
(B)
Public child welfare agency
(y)
Homeownership option
(1)
Use of assistance for homeownership
A public housing agency providing tenant-based assistance on behalf of an eligible family under this section may provide assistance for an eligible family that purchases a dwelling unit (including a unit under a lease-purchase agreement) that will be owned by 1 or more members of the family, and will be occupied by the family, if the family—
(A)
is a first-time homeowner, or owns or is acquiring shares in a cooperative;
(B)
demonstrates that the family has income from employment or other sources (other than public assistance, except that the Secretary may provide for the consideration of public assistance in the case of an elderly family or a disabled family), as determined in accordance with requirements of the Secretary, that is not less than twice the payment standard established by the public housing agency (or such other amount as may be established by the Secretary);
(C)
except as provided by the Secretary, demonstrates at the time the family initially receives tenant-based assistance under this subsection that one or more adult members of the family have achieved employment for the period as the Secretary shall require;
(D)
participates in a homeownership and housing counseling program provided by the agency; and
(E)
meets any other initial or continuing requirements established by the public housing agency in accordance with requirements established by the Secretary.
(2)
Determination of amount of assistance
(A)
Monthly expenses not exceeding payment standard
If the monthly homeownership expenses, as determined in accordance with requirements established by the Secretary, do not exceed the payment standard, the monthly assistance payment shall be the amount by which the homeownership expenses exceed the highest of the following amounts, rounded to the nearest dollar:
(i)
30 percent of the monthly adjusted income of the family.
(ii)
10 percent of the monthly income of the family.
(iii)
If the family is receiving payments for welfare assistance from a public agency, and a portion of those payments, adjusted in accordance with the actual housing costs of the family, is specifically designated by that agency to meet the housing costs of the family, the portion of those payments that is so designated.
(B)
Monthly expenses exceed payment standard
(3)
Inspections and contract conditions
(A)
In general
Each contract for the purchase of a unit to be assisted under this section shall—
(i)
provide for pre-purchase inspection of the unit by an independent professional; and
(ii)
require that any cost of necessary repairs be paid by the seller.
(B)
Annual inspections not required
(4)
Other authority of the Secretary
The Secretary may—
(A)
limit the term of assistance for a family assisted under this subsection; and
(B)
modify the requirements of this subsection as the Secretary determines to be necessary to make appropriate adaptations for lease-purchase agreements.
(5)
Inapplicability of certain provisions
Assistance under this subsection shall not be subject to the requirements of the following provisions:
(A)
Subsection (c)(3)(B) 6 of this section.
(B)
Subsection (d)(1)(B)(i) of this section.
(C)
Any other provisions of this section governing maximum amounts payable to owners and amounts payable by assisted families.
(D)
Any other provisions of this section concerning contracts between public housing agencies and owners.
(E)
Any other provisions of this chapter that are inconsistent with the provisions of this subsection.
(6)
Reversion to rental status
(A)
FHA-insured mortgages
(B)
Other mortgages
(C)
All mortgages
(7)
Downpayment assistance
(A)
Authority
(B)
Amount
(8)
“First-time homeowner” defined
For purposes of this subsection, the term “first-time homeowner” means—
(A)
a family, no member of which has had a present ownership interest in a principal residence during the 3 years preceding the date on which the family initially receives assistance for homeownership under this subsection; and
(B)
any other family, as the Secretary may prescribe.
(z)
Termination of section 1437f contracts and reuse of recaptured budget authority
(1)
General authority
The Secretary may reuse any budget authority, in whole or part, that is recaptured on account of expiration or termination of a housing assistance payments contract only for one or more of the following:
(A)
Tenant-based assistance
(B)
Project-based assistance
(2)
Families occupying units formerly assisted under terminated contract
(aa)
Omitted
(bb)
Transfer, reuse, and rescission of budget authority
(1)
Transfer of budget authority
(2)
Reuse and rescission of certain recaptured budget authority
(cc)
Law enforcement and security personnel
(1)
In general
(2)
Rent requirements
With respect to any assistance provided by an owner under this subsection, the Secretary may—
(A)
permit the owner to establish such rent requirements and other terms and conditions of occupancy that the Secretary considers to be appropriate; and
(B)
require the owner to submit an application for those rent requirements, which application shall include such information as the Secretary, in the discretion of the Secretary, determines to be necessary.
(3)
Applicability
(dd)
Tenant-based contract renewals
(Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, § 8, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title II, § 201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 662; amended Pub. L. 94–375, § 2(d), (e), (g), Aug. 3, 1976, 90 Stat. 1068; Pub. L. 95–24, title I, § 101(c), Apr. 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 55; Pub. L. 95–128, title II, § 201(c)–(e), Oct. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1128; Pub. L. 95–557, title II, § 206(d)(1), (e), (f), Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2091, 2092; Pub. L. 96–153, title II, §§ 202(b), 206(b), 210, 211(b), Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1106, 1108–1110; Pub. L. 96–399, title II, § 203, title III, § 308(c)(3), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1629, 1641; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §§ 322(e), 324–326(a), (e)(1), 329H(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 402, 405–407, 410; Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, §§ 203(b)(1), (2), 207–209(a), 210, 211], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1178, 1181–1183; Pub. L. 98–479, title I, § 102(b)(6)–(10), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2221, 2222; Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §§ 141–149, title II, § 262, Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1849–1853, 1890; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 100–358, § 5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 681; Pub. L. 100–628, title X, §§ 1004(a), 1005(b)(1), (c), 1006, 1014(b), (c), 1029, Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3264, 3265, 3269, 3272; Pub. L. 101–235, title I, § 127, title VIII, § 801(c), (g), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2025, 2058, 2059; Pub. L. 101–625, title II, § 289(b), title IV, § 413, title V, §§ 541–545(a), 545(2)[(b)], 546–549, 550(a), (c), 551–553, 572, title VI, §§ 603, 613(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4128, 4160, 4216–4224, 4236, 4277, 4280; Pub. L. 102–139, title II, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 756; Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §§ 141–148, 185(a), title VI, §§ 623(b), 660, 674, 675, 682(b), title X, § 1012(g), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3713–3715, 3745, 3819, 3825, 3827, 3828, 3830, 3905; Pub. L. 103–233, title I, § 101(c)(2), (3), (d), Apr. 11, 1994, 108 Stat. 357; Pub. L. 103–327, title II, Sept. 28, 1994, 108 Stat. 2315; Pub. L. 104–19, title I, § 1003, July 27, 1995, 109 Stat. 236; Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, §§ 402(d)(2), (3), (6)(A)(iii), (iv), 405(c), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 41, 42, 44; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, § 101(e) [title II, §§ 203(a)–(c), 208], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–257, 1321–281, 1321–284; renumbered title I,
cite as: 42 USC 1437f