U.S Code last checked for updates: Jun 15, 2024
§ 530.
Coverdell education savings accounts
(a)
General rule
(b)
Definitions and special rules
For purposes of this section—
(1)
Coverdell education savings account
The term “Coverdell education savings account” means a trust created or organized in the United States exclusively for the purpose of paying the qualified education expenses of an individual who is the designated beneficiary of the trust (and designated as a Coverdell education savings account at the time created or organized), but only if the written governing instrument creating the trust meets the following requirements:
(A)
No contribution will be accepted—
(i)
unless it is in cash,
(ii)
after the date on which such beneficiary attains age 18, or
(iii)
except in the case of rollover contributions, if such contribution would result in aggregate contributions for the taxable year exceeding $2,000.
(B)
The trustee is a bank (as defined in section 408(n)) or another person who demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the manner in which that person will administer the trust will be consistent with the requirements of this section or who has so demonstrated with respect to any individual retirement plan.
(C)
No part of the trust assets will be invested in life insurance contracts.
(D)
The assets of the trust shall not be commingled with other property except in a common trust fund or common investment fund.
(E)
Except as provided in subsection (d)(7), any balance to the credit of the designated beneficiary on the date on which the beneficiary attains age 30 shall be distributed within 30 days after such date to the beneficiary or, if the beneficiary dies before attaining age 30, shall be distributed within 30 days after the date of death of such beneficiary.
The age limitations in subparagraphs (A)(ii) and (E), and paragraphs (5) and (6) of subsection (d), shall not apply to any designated beneficiary with special needs (as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary).
(2)
Qualified education expenses
(A)
In general
The term “qualified education expenses” means—
(i)
qualified higher education expenses (as defined in section 529(e)(3)), and
(ii)
qualified elementary and secondary education expenses (as defined in paragraph (3)).
(B)
Qualified tuition programs
(3)
Qualified elementary and secondary education expenses
(A)
In general
The term “qualified elementary and secondary education expenses” means—
(i)
expenses for tuition, fees, academic tutoring, special needs services in the case of a special needs beneficiary, books, supplies, and other equipment which are incurred in connection with the enrollment or attendance of the designated beneficiary of the trust as an elementary or secondary school student at a public, private, or religious school,
(ii)
expenses for room and board, uniforms, transportation, and supplementary items and services (including extended day programs) which are required or provided by a public, private, or religious school in connection with such enrollment or attendance, and
(iii)
expenses for the purchase of any computer technology or equipment or Internet access and related services, if such technology, equipment, or services are to be used by the beneficiary and the beneficiary’s family during any of the years the beneficiary is in school.
Clause (iii) shall not include expenses for computer software designed for sports, games, or hobbies unless the software is predominantly educational in nature.
(B)
School
(C)
Computer technology or equipment
(4)
Time when contributions deemed made
(c)
Reduction in permitted contributions based on adjusted gross income
(1)
In general
In the case of a contributor who is an individual, the maximum amount the contributor could otherwise make to an account under this section shall be reduced by an amount which bears the same ratio to such maximum amount as—
(A)
the excess of—
(i)
the contributor’s modified adjusted gross income for such taxable year, over
(ii)
$95,000 ($190,000 in the case of a joint return), bears to
(B)
$15,000 ($30,000 in the case of a joint return).
(2)
Modified adjusted gross income
(d)
Tax treatment of distributions
(1)
In general
(2)
Distributions for qualified education expenses
(A)
In general
(B)
Distributions in excess of expenses
(C)
Coordination with American Opportunity and Lifetime Learning credits and qualified tuition programs
For purposes of subparagraph (A)—
(i)
Credit coordination
The total amount of qualified education expenses with respect to an individual for the taxable year shall be reduced—
(I)
as provided in section 25A(g)(2), and
(II)
by the amount of such expenses which were taken into account in determining the credit allowed to the taxpayer or any other person under section 25A.
(ii)
Coordination with qualified tuition programs
If, with respect to an individual for any taxable year—
(I)
the aggregate distributions during such year to which subparagraph (A) and section 529(c)(3)(B) apply, exceed
(II)
the total amount of qualified education expenses (after the application of clause (i)) for such year,
 the taxpayer shall allocate such expenses among such distributions for purposes of determining the amount of the exclusion under subparagraph (A) and section 529(c)(3)(B).
(D)
Disallowance of excluded amounts as deduction, credit, or exclusion
(3)
Special rules for applying estate and gift taxes with respect to account
(4)
Additional tax for distributions not used for educational expenses
(A)
In general
(B)
Exceptions
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply if the payment or distribution is—
(i)
made to a beneficiary (or to the estate of the designated beneficiary) on or after the death of the designated beneficiary,
(ii)
attributable to the designated beneficiary’s being disabled (within the meaning of section 72(m)(7)),
(iii)
made on account of a scholarship, allowance, or payment described in section 25A(g)(2) received by the designated beneficiary to the extent the amount of the payment or distribution does not exceed the amount of the scholarship, allowance, or payment,
(iv)
made on account of the attendance of the designated beneficiary at the United States Military Academy, the United States Naval Academy, the United States Air Force Academy, the United States Coast Guard Academy, or the United States Merchant Marine Academy, to the extent that the amount of the payment or distribution does not exceed the costs of advanced education (as defined by section 2005(e)(3) of title 10, United States Code, as in effect on the date of the enactment of this section) attributable to such attendance, or
(v)
an amount which is includible in gross income solely by application of paragraph (2)(C)(i)(II) for the taxable year.
(C)
Contributions returned before certain date
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to the distribution of any contribution made during a taxable year on behalf of the designated beneficiary if—
(i)
such distribution is made before the first day of the sixth month of the taxable year following the taxable year, and
(ii)
such distribution is accompanied by the amount of net income attributable to such excess contribution.
Any net income described in clause (ii) shall be included in gross income for the taxable year in which such excess contribution was made.
(5)
Rollover contributions
(6)
Change in beneficiary
(7)
Special rules for death and divorce
(8)
Deemed distribution on required distribution date
(9)
Military death gratuity
(A)
In general
For purposes of this section, the term “rollover contribution” includes a contribution to a Coverdell education savings account made before the end of the 1-year period beginning on the date on which the contributor receives an amount under section 1477 of title 10, United States Code, or section 1967 of title 38 of such Code, with respect to a person, to the extent that such contribution does not exceed—
(i)
the sum of the amounts received during such period by such contributor under such sections with respect to such person, reduced by
(ii)
the amounts so received which were contributed to a Roth IRA under section 408A(e)(2) or to another Coverdell education savings account.
(B)
Annual limit on number of rollovers not to apply
(C)
Application of section 72
(e)
Tax treatment of accounts
(f)
Community property laws
(g)
Custodial accounts
(h)
Reports
(Added Pub. L. 105–34, title II, § 213(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 813; amended Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, § 6004(d)(1)–(3)(A), (5)–(8), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 793, 794; Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(7) [title III, § 319(6)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–646; Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §§ 401(a)(1), (b)–(g)(1), (2)(C), 402(a)(4)(A), (C), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 57–61; Pub. L. 107–22, § 1(a)(1)–(5), July 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 196; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, § 411(f), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 46; Pub. L. 108–121, title I, § 107(a), Nov. 11, 2003, 117 Stat. 1339; Pub. L. 108–311, title IV, §§ 404(a), 406(b), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1188, 1189; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, § 412(ff), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2639; Pub. L. 110–245, title I, § 109(c), June 17, 2008, 122 Stat. 1632; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title I, § 101(l)(16), title IV, § 401(a)(131), (b)(23), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1165, 1190, 1203.)
cite as: 26 USC 530