U.S Code last checked for updates: Jul 20, 2024
§ 1412.
State eligibility
(a)
In general
A State is eligible for assistance under this subchapter for a fiscal year if the State submits a plan that provides assurances to the Secretary that the State has in effect policies and procedures to ensure that the State meets each of the following conditions:
(1)
Free appropriate public education
(A)
In general
(B)
Limitation
The obligation to make a free appropriate public education available to all children with disabilities does not apply with respect to children—
(i)
aged 3 through 5 and 18 through 21 in a State to the extent that its application to those children would be inconsistent with State law or practice, or the order of any court, respecting the provision of public education to children in those age ranges; and
(ii)
aged 18 through 21 to the extent that State law does not require that special education and related services under this subchapter be provided to children with disabilities who, in the educational placement prior to their incarceration in an adult correctional facility—
(I)
were not actually identified as being a child with a disability under section 1401 of this title; or
(II)
did not have an individualized education program under this subchapter.
(C)
State flexibility
(2)
Full educational opportunity goal
(3)
Child find
(A)
In general
(B)
Construction
(4)
Individualized education program
(5)
Least restrictive environment
(A)
In general
(B)
Additional requirement
(i)
In general
(ii)
Assurance
(6)
Procedural safeguards
(A)
In general
(B)
Additional procedural safeguards
(7)
Evaluation
(8)
Confidentiality
(9)
Transition from subchapter III to preschool programs
(10)
Children in private schools
(A)
Children enrolled in private schools by their parents
(i)
In general
To the extent consistent with the number and location of children with disabilities in the State who are enrolled by their parents in private elementary schools and secondary schools in the school district served by a local educational agency, provision is made for the participation of those children in the program assisted or carried out under this subchapter by providing for such children special education and related services in accordance with the following requirements, unless the Secretary has arranged for services to those children under subsection (f):
(I)
Amounts to be expended for the provision of those services (including direct services to parentally placed private school children) by the local educational agency shall be equal to a proportionate amount of Federal funds made available under this subchapter.
(II)
In calculating the proportionate amount of Federal funds, the local educational agency, after timely and meaningful consultation with representatives of private schools as described in clause (iii), shall conduct a thorough and complete child find process to determine the number of parentally placed children with disabilities attending private schools located in the local educational agency.
(III)
Such services to parentally placed private school children with disabilities may be provided to the children on the premises of private, including religious, schools, to the extent consistent with law.
(IV)
State and local funds may supplement and in no case shall supplant the proportionate amount of Federal funds required to be expended under this subparagraph.
(V)
Each local educational agency shall maintain in its records and provide to the State educational agency the number of children evaluated under this subparagraph, the number of children determined to be children with disabilities under this paragraph, and the number of children served under this paragraph.
(ii)
Child find requirement
(I)
In general
(II)
Equitable participation
(III)
Activities
(IV)
Cost
(V)
Completion period
(iii)
Consultation
To ensure timely and meaningful consultation, a local educational agency, or where appropriate, a State educational agency, shall consult with private school representatives and representatives of parents of parentally placed private school children with disabilities during the design and development of special education and related services for the children, including regarding—
(I)
the child find process and how parentally placed private school children suspected of having a disability can participate equitably, including how parents, teachers, and private school officials will be informed of the process;
(II)
the determination of the proportionate amount of Federal funds available to serve parentally placed private school children with disabilities under this subparagraph, including the determination of how the amount was calculated;
(III)
the consultation process among the local educational agency, private school officials, and representatives of parents of parentally placed private school children with disabilities, including how such process will operate throughout the school year to ensure that parentally placed private school children with disabilities identified through the child find process can meaningfully participate in special education and related services;
(IV)
how, where, and by whom special education and related services will be provided for parentally placed private school children with disabilities, including a discussion of types of services, including direct services and alternate service delivery mechanisms, how such services will be apportioned if funds are insufficient to serve all children, and how and when these decisions will be made; and
(V)
how, if the local educational agency disagrees with the views of the private school officials on the provision of services or the types of services, whether provided directly or through a contract, the local educational agency shall provide to the private school officials a written explanation of the reasons why the local educational agency chose not to provide services directly or through a contract.
(iv)
Written affirmation
(v)
Compliance
(I)
In general
(II)
Procedure
(vi)
Provision of equitable services
(I)
Directly or through contracts
The provision of services pursuant to this subparagraph shall be provided—
(aa)
by employees of a public agency; or
(bb)
through contract by the public agency with an individual, association, agency, organization, or other entity.
(II)
Secular, neutral, nonideological
(vii)
Public control of funds
(B)
Children placed in, or referred to, private schools by public agencies
(i)
In general
(ii)
Standards
(C)
Payment for education of children enrolled in private schools without consent of or referral by the public agency
(i)
In general
(ii)
Reimbursement for private school placement
(iii)
Limitation on reimbursement
The cost of reimbursement described in clause (ii) may be reduced or denied—
(I)
if—
(aa)
at the most recent IEP meeting that the parents attended prior to removal of the child from the public school, the parents did not inform the IEP Team that they were rejecting the placement proposed by the public agency to provide a free appropriate public education to their child, including stating their concerns and their intent to enroll their child in a private school at public expense; or
(bb)
10 business days (including any holidays that occur on a business day) prior to the removal of the child from the public school, the parents did not give written notice to the public agency of the information described in item (aa);
(II)
if, prior to the parents’ removal of the child from the public school, the public agency informed the parents, through the notice requirements described in section 1415(b)(3) of this title, of its intent to evaluate the child (including a statement of the purpose of the evaluation that was appropriate and reasonable), but the parents did not make the child available for such evaluation; or
(III)
upon a judicial finding of unreasonableness with respect to actions taken by the parents.
(iv)
Exception
Notwithstanding the notice requirement in clause (iii)(I), the cost of reimbursement—
(I)
shall not be reduced or denied for failure to provide such notice if—
(aa)
the school prevented the parent from providing such notice;
(bb)
the parents had not received notice, pursuant to section 1415 of this title, of the notice requirement in clause (iii)(I); or
(cc)
compliance with clause (iii)(I) would likely result in physical harm to the child; and
(II)
may, in the discretion of a court or a hearing officer, not be reduced or denied for failure to provide such notice if—
(aa)
the parent is illiterate or cannot write in English; or
(bb)
compliance with clause (iii)(I) would likely result in serious emotional harm to the child.
(11)
State educational agency responsible for general supervision
(A)
In general
The State educational agency is responsible for ensuring that—
(i)
the requirements of this subchapter are met;
(ii)
all educational programs for children with disabilities in the State, including all such programs administered by any other State agency or local agency—
(I)
are under the general supervision of individuals in the State who are responsible for educational programs for children with disabilities; and
(II)
meet the educational standards of the State educational agency; and
(iii)
in carrying out this subchapter with respect to homeless children, the requirements of subtitle B of title VII of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11431 et seq.) are met.
(B)
Limitation
(C)
Exception
(12)
Obligations related to and methods of ensuring services
(A)
Establishing responsibility for services
The Chief Executive Officer of a State or designee of the officer shall ensure that an interagency agreement or other mechanism for interagency coordination is in effect between each public agency described in subparagraph (B) and the State educational agency, in order to ensure that all services described in subparagraph (B)(i) that are needed to ensure a free appropriate public education are provided, including the provision of such services during the pendency of any dispute under clause (iii). Such agreement or mechanism shall include the following:
(i)
Agency financial responsibility
(ii)
Conditions and terms of reimbursement
(iii)
Interagency disputes
(iv)
Coordination of services procedures
(B)
Obligation of public agency
(i)
In general
(ii)
Reimbursement for services by public agency
(C)
Special rule
The requirements of subparagraph (A) may be met through—
(i)
State statute or regulation;
(ii)
signed agreements between respective agency officials that clearly identify the responsibilities of each agency relating to the provision of services; or
(iii)
other appropriate written methods as determined by the Chief Executive Officer of the State or designee of the officer and approved by the Secretary.
(13)
Procedural requirements relating to local educational agency eligibility
(14)
Personnel qualifications
(A)
In general
(B)
Related services personnel and paraprofessionals
The qualifications under subparagraph (A) include qualifications for related services personnel and paraprofessionals that—
(i)
are consistent with any State-approved or State-recognized certification, licensing, registration, or other comparable requirements that apply to the professional discipline in which those personnel are providing special education or related services;
(ii)
ensure that related services personnel who deliver services in their discipline or profession meet the requirements of clause (i) and have not had certification or licensure requirements waived on an emergency, temporary, or provisional basis; and
(iii)
allow paraprofessionals and assistants who are appropriately trained and supervised, in accordance with State law, regulation, or written policy, in meeting the requirements of this subchapter to be used to assist in the provision of special education and related services under this subchapter to children with disabilities.
(C)
Qualifications for special education teachers
The qualifications described in subparagraph (A) shall ensure that each person employed as a special education teacher in the State who teaches elementary school, middle school, or secondary school—
(i)
has obtained full State certification as a special education teacher (including participating in an alternate route to certification as a special educator, if such alternate route meets minimum requirements described in section 2005.56(a)(2)(ii) 1
1
 So in original. Probably should be “200.56(a)(2)(ii)”.
of title 34, Code of Federal Regulations, as such section was in effect on November 28, 2008), or passed the State special education teacher licensing examination, and holds a license to teach in the State as a special education teacher, except with respect to any teacher teaching in a public charter school who shall meet the requirements set forth in the State’s public charter school law;
(ii)
has not had special education certification or licensure requirements waived on an emergency, temporary, or provisional basis; and
(iii)
holds at least a bachelor’s degree..2
2
 So in original.
(D)
Policy
(E)
Rule of construction
(15)
Performance goals and indicators
The State—
(A)
has established goals for the performance of children with disabilities in the State that—
(i)
promote the purposes of this chapter, as stated in section 1400(d) of this title;
(ii)
are the same as the State’s long-term goals and measurements of interim progress for children with disabilities under section 6311(c)(4)(A)(i) of this title;
(iii)
address graduation rates and dropout rates, as well as such other factors as the State may determine; and
(iv)
are consistent, to the extent appropriate, with any other goals and standards for children established by the State;
(B)
has established performance indicators the State will use to assess progress toward achieving the goals described in subparagraph (A), including measurements of interim progress for children with disabilities under section 6311(c)(4)(A)(i) of this title; and
(C)
will annually report to the Secretary and the public on the progress of the State, and of children with disabilities in the State, toward meeting the goals established under subparagraph (A), which may include elements of the reports required under section 6311(h) of this title.
(16)
Participation in assessments
(A)
In general
(B)
Accommodation guidelines
(C)
Alternate assessments
(i)
In general
(ii)
Requirements for alternate assessments
The guidelines under clause (i) shall provide for alternate assessments that—
(I)
are aligned with the challenging State academic content standards under section 6311(b)(1) of this title and alternate academic achievement standards under section 6311(b)(1)(E) of this title; and
(II)
if the State has adopted alternate academic achievement standards permitted under section 6311(b)(1)(E) of this title, measure the achievement of children with disabilities against those standards.
(iii)
Conduct of alternate assessments
(D)
Reports
The State educational agency (or, in the case of a districtwide assessment, the local educational agency) makes available to the public, and reports to the public with the same frequency and in the same detail as it reports on the assessment of nondisabled children, the following:
(i)
The number of children with disabilities participating in regular assessments, and the number of those children who were provided accommodations in order to participate in those assessments.
(ii)
The number of children with disabilities participating in alternate assessments described in subparagraph (C)(ii)(I).
(iii)
The number of children with disabilities participating in alternate assessments described in subparagraph (C)(ii)(II).
(iv)
The performance of children with disabilities on regular assessments and on alternate assessments (if the number of children with disabilities participating in those assessments is sufficient to yield statistically reliable information and reporting that information will not reveal personally identifiable information about an individual student), compared with the achievement of all children, including children with disabilities, on those assessments.
(E)
Universal design
(17)
Supplementation of State, local, and other Federal funds
(A)
Expenditures
(B)
Prohibition against commingling
(C)
Prohibition against supplantation and conditions for waiver by Secretary
(18)
Maintenance of State financial support
(A)
In general
(B)
Reduction of funds for failure to maintain support
(C)
Waivers for exceptional or uncontrollable circumstances
The Secretary may waive the requirement of subparagraph (A) for a State, for 1 fiscal year at a time, if the Secretary determines that—
(i)
granting a waiver would be equitable due to exceptional or uncontrollable circumstances such as a natural disaster or a precipitous and unforeseen decline in the financial resources of the State; or
(ii)
the State meets the standard in paragraph (17)(C) for a waiver of the requirement to supplement, and not to supplant, funds received under this subchapter.
(D)
Subsequent years
(19)
Public participation
(20)
Rule of construction
(21)
State advisory panel
(A)
In general
(B)
Membership
Such advisory panel shall consist of members appointed by the Governor, or any other official authorized under State law to make such appointments, be representative of the State population, and be composed of individuals involved in, or concerned with, the education of children with disabilities, including—
(i)
parents of children with disabilities (ages birth through 26);
(ii)
individuals with disabilities;
(iii)
teachers;
(iv)
representatives of institutions of higher education that prepare special education and related services personnel;
(v)
State and local education officials, including officials who carry out activities under subtitle B of title VII of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11431 et seq.);
(vi)
administrators of programs for children with disabilities;
(vii)
representatives of other State agencies involved in the financing or delivery of related services to children with disabilities;
(viii)
representatives of private schools and public charter schools;
(ix)
not less than 1 representative of a vocational, community, or business organization concerned with the provision of transition services to children with disabilities;
(x)
a representative from the State child welfare agency responsible for foster care; and
(xi)
representatives from the State juvenile and adult corrections agencies.
(C)
Special rule
(D)
Duties
The advisory panel shall—
(i)
advise the State educational agency of unmet needs within the State in the education of children with disabilities;
(ii)
comment publicly on any rules or regulations proposed by the State regarding the education of children with disabilities;
(iii)
advise the State educational agency in developing evaluations and reporting on data to the Secretary under section 1418 of this title;
(iv)
advise the State educational agency in developing corrective action plans to address findings identified in Federal monitoring reports under this subchapter; and
(v)
advise the State educational agency in developing and implementing policies relating to the coordination of services for children with disabilities.
(22)
Suspension and expulsion rates
(A)
In general
The State educational agency examines data, including data disaggregated by race and ethnicity, to determine if significant discrepancies are occurring in the rate of long-term suspensions and expulsions of children with disabilities—
(i)
among local educational agencies in the State; or
(ii)
compared to such rates for nondisabled children within such agencies.
(B)
Review and revision of policies
(23)
Access to instructional materials
(A)
In general
(B)
Rights of State educational agency
(C)
Preparation and delivery of files
If a State educational agency chooses to coordinate with the National Instructional Materials Access Center, not later than 2 years after December 3, 2004, the agency, as part of any print instructional materials adoption process, procurement contract, or other practice or instrument used for purchase of print instructional materials, shall enter into a written contract with the publisher of the print instructional materials to—
(i)
require the publisher to prepare and, on or before delivery of the print instructional materials, provide to the National Instructional Materials Access Center electronic files containing the contents of the print instructional materials using the National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard; or
(ii)
purchase instructional materials from the publisher that are produced in, or may be rendered in, specialized formats.
(D)
Assistive technology
(E)
Definitions
In this paragraph:
(i)
National Instructional Materials Access Center
(ii)
National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard
(iii)
Specialized formats
(24)
Overidentification and disproportionality
(25)
Prohibition on mandatory medication
(A)
In general
(B)
Rule of construction
(b)
State educational agency as provider of free appropriate public education or direct services
If the State educational agency provides free appropriate public education to children with disabilities, or provides direct services to such children, such agency—
(1)
shall comply with any additional requirements of section 1413(a) of this title, as if such agency were a local educational agency; and
(2)
may use amounts that are otherwise available to such agency under this subchapter to serve those children without regard to section 1413(a)(2)(A)(i) of this title (relating to excess costs).
(c)
Exception for prior State plans
(1)
In general
(2)
Modifications made by State
(3)
Modifications required by the Secretary
(d)
Approval by the Secretary
(1)
In general
(2)
Notice and hearing
The Secretary shall not make a final determination that a State is not eligible to receive a grant under this subchapter until after providing the State—
(A)
with reasonable notice; and
(B)
with an opportunity for a hearing.
(e)
Assistance under other Federal programs
(f)
By-pass for children in private schools
(1)
In general
(2)
Payments
(A)
Determination of amounts
If the Secretary arranges for services pursuant to this subsection, the Secretary, after consultation with the appropriate public and private school officials, shall pay to the provider of such services for a fiscal year an amount per child that does not exceed the amount determined by dividing—
(i)
the total amount received by the State under this subchapter for such fiscal year; by
(ii)
the number of children with disabilities served in the prior year, as reported to the Secretary by the State under section 1418 of this title.
(B)
Withholding of certain amounts
(C)
Period of payments
(3)
Notice and hearing
(A)
In general
(B)
Review of action
(C)
Review of findings of fact
(D)
Jurisdiction of court of appeals; review by United States Supreme Court
(Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, § 612, as added Pub. L. 108–446, title I, § 101, Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2676; amended Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §§ 9214(d)(2), 9215(ss)(3), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2164, 2182.)
cite as: 20 USC 1412