U.S Code last checked for updates: May 27, 2024
§ 1818.
Termination of status as insured depository institution
(a)
Termination of insurance
(1)
Voluntary termination
Any insured depository institution which is not—
(A)
a national member bank;
(B)
a State member bank;
(C)
a Federal branch;
(D)
a Federal savings association; or
(E)
an insured branch which is required to be insured under subsection (a) or (b) 1
1
 See References in Text note below.
of section 3104 of this title,
may terminate such depository institution’s status as an insured depository institution if such insured institution provides written notice to the Corporation of the institution’s intent to terminate such status not less than 90 days before the effective date of such termination.
(2)
Involuntary termination
(A)
Notice to primary regulator
If the Board of Directors determines that—
(i)
an insured depository institution or the directors or trustees of an insured depository institution have engaged or are engaging in unsafe or unsound practices in conducting the business of the depository institution;
(ii)
an insured depository institution is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations as an insured institution; or
(iii)
an insured depository institution or the directors or trustees of the insured institution have violated any applicable law, regulation, order, condition imposed in writing by the Corporation in connection with the approval of any application or other request by the insured depository institution, or written agreement entered into between the insured depository institution and the Corporation,
the Board of Directors shall notify the appropriate Federal banking agency with respect to such institution (if other than the Corporation) or the State banking supervisor of such institution (if the Corporation is the appropriate Federal banking agency) of the Board’s determination and the facts and circumstances on which such determination is based for the purpose of securing the correction of such practice, condition, or violation. Such notice shall be given to the appropriate Federal banking agency not less than 30 days before the notice required by subparagraph (B), except that this period for notice to the appropriate Federal banking agency may be reduced or eliminated with the agreement of such agency.
(B)
Notice of intention to terminate insurance
If, after giving the notice required under subparagraph (A) with respect to an insured depository institution, the Board of Directors determines that any unsafe or unsound practice or condition or any violation specified in such notice requires the termination of the insured status of the insured depository institution, the Board shall—
(i)
serve written notice to the insured depository institution of the Board’s intention to terminate the insured status of the institution;
(ii)
provide the insured depository institution with a statement of the charges on the basis of which the determination to terminate such institution’s insured status was made (or a copy of the notice under subparagraph (A)); and
(iii)
notify the insured depository institution of the date (not less than 30 days after notice under this subparagraph) and place for a hearing before the Board of Directors (or any person designated by the Board) with respect to the termination of the institution’s insured status.
(3)
Hearing; termination
(4)
Appearance; consent to termination
(5)
Judicial review
(6)
Publication of notice of termination
(7)
Temporary insurance of deposits insured as of termination
(8)
Temporary suspension of insurance
(A)
In general
(B)
Special rule for certain savings institutions
(i)
Certain goodwill included in tangible capital
(ii)
Suspension order
The Corporation may issue a temporary order suspending deposit insurance on all deposits received by a special supervisory association whenever the Board of Directors determines that—
(I)
the capital of such association, as computed utilizing applicable accounting standards, has suffered a material decline;
(II)
that such association (or its directors or officers) is engaging in an unsafe or unsound practice in conducting the business of the association;
(III)
that such association is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operating as an insured association; or
(IV)
that such association (or its directors or officers) has violated any applicable law, rule, regulation, or order, or any condition imposed in writing by a Federal banking agency, or any written agreement including a capital improvement plan entered into with any Federal banking agency, or that the association has failed to enter into a capital improvement plan which is acceptable to the Corporation within the time period set forth in section 1464(t) of this title.
 Nothing in this paragraph limits the right of the Corporation or the Comptroller of the Currency to enforce a contractual provision which authorizes the Corporation or the Comptroller of the Currency, as a successor to the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation or the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, to require a savings association to write down or amortize goodwill at a faster rate than otherwise required under this chapter or under applicable accounting standards.
(C)
Effective period of temporary order
(D)
Judicial review
(E)
Continuation of insurance for prior deposits
(F)
Publication of order
(G)
Notice by Corporation
(H)
Lack of notice
Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), any deposit made after the effective date of a suspension order issued under this paragraph shall remain insured to the extent that the depositor establishes that—
(i)
such deposit consists of additions made by automatic deposit the depositor was unable to prevent; or
(ii)
such depositor did not have actual knowledge of the suspension of insurance.
(9)
Final decisions to terminate insurance
Any decision by the Board of Directors to—
(A)
issue a temporary order terminating deposit insurance; or
(B)
issue a final order terminating deposit insurance (other than under subsection (p) or (q));
shall be made by the Board of Directors and may not be delegated.
(10)
Low- to moderate-income housing lender
(b)
Cease-and-desist proceedings
(1)
If, in the opinion of the appropriate Federal banking agency, any insured depository institution, depository institution which has insured deposits, or any institution-affiliated party is engaging or has engaged, or the agency has reasonable cause to believe that the depository institution or any institution-affiliated party is about to engage, in an unsafe or unsound practice in conducting the business of such depository institution, or is violating or has violated, or the agency has reasonable cause to believe that the depository institution or any institution-affiliated party is about to violate, a law, rule, or regulation, or any condition imposed in writing by a Federal banking agency in connection with any action on any application, notice, or other request by the depository institution or institution-affiliated party, or any written agreement entered into with the agency, the appropriate Federal banking agency for the depository institution may issue and serve upon the depository institution or such party a notice of charges in respect thereof. The notice shall contain a statement of the facts constituting the alleged violation or violations or the unsafe or unsound practice or practices, and shall fix a time and place at which a hearing will be held to determine whether an order to cease and desist therefrom should issue against the depository institution or the institution-affiliated party. Such hearing shall be fixed for a date not earlier than thirty days nor later than sixty days after service of such notice unless an earlier or a later date is set by the agency at the request of any party so served. Unless the party or parties so served shall appear at the hearing personally or by a duly authorized representative, they shall be deemed to have consented to the issuance of the cease-and-desist order. In the event of such consent, or if upon the record made at any such hearing, the agency shall find that any violation or unsafe or unsound practice specified in the notice of charges has been established, the agency may issue and serve upon the depository institution or the institution-affiliated party an order to cease and desist from any such violation or practice. Such order may, by provisions which may be mandatory or otherwise, require the depository institution or its institution-affiliated parties to cease and desist from the same, and, further, to take affirmative action to correct the conditions resulting from any such violation or practice.
(2)
A cease-and-desist order shall become effective at the expiration of thirty days after the service of such order upon the depository institution or other person concerned (except in the case of a cease-and-desist order issued upon consent, which shall become effective at the time specified therein), and shall remain effective and enforceable as provided therein, except to such extent as it is stayed, modified, terminated, or set aside by action of the agency or a reviewing court.
(3)
This subsection, subsections (c) through (s) and subsection (u) of this section, and section 1831aa of this title shall apply to any bank holding company, and to any subsidiary (other than a bank) of a bank holding company, as those terms are defined in the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 [12 U.S.C. 1841 et seq.], any savings and loan holding company and any subsidiary (other than a depository institution) of a savings and loan holding company (as such terms are defined in section 1467a of this title)),2
2
 So in original. The second closing parenthesis probably should not appear.
any noninsured State member bank and to any organization organized and operated under section 25(a) 1 of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 611 et seq.] or operating under section 25 of the Federal Reserve Act [12 U.S.C. 601 et seq.], in the same manner as they apply to a State member insured bank. Nothing in this subsection or in subsection (c) of this section shall authorize any Federal banking agency, other than the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, to issue a notice of charges or cease-and-desist order against a bank holding company or any subsidiary thereof (other than a bank or subsidiary of that bank) or against a savings and loan holding company or any subsidiary thereof (other than a depository institution or a subsidiary of such depository institution).
(4)
This subsection, subsections (c) through (s) and subsection (u) of this section, and section 1831aa of this title shall apply to any foreign bank or company to which subsection (a) of section 3106 of this title applies and to any subsidiary (other than a bank) of any such foreign bank or company in the same manner as they apply to a bank holding company and any subsidiary thereof (other than a bank) under paragraph (3) of this subsection. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “subsidiary” shall have the meaning assigned to it in section 2 of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 [12 U.S.C. 1841].
(5)
This section shall apply, in the same manner as it applies to any insured depository institution for which the appropriate Federal banking agency is the Comptroller of the Currency, to any national banking association chartered by the Comptroller of the Currency, including an uninsured association.
(6)
Affirmative action to correct conditions resulting from violations or practices.—
The authority to issue an order under this subsection and subsection (c) which requires an insured depository institution or any institution-affiliated party to take affirmative action to correct or remedy any conditions resulting from any violation or practice with respect to which such order is issued includes the authority to require such depository institution or such party to—
(A)
make restitution or provide reimbursement, indemnification, or guarantee against loss if—
(i)
such depository institution or such party was unjustly enriched in connection with such violation or practice; or
(ii)
the violation or practice involved a reckless disregard for the law or any applicable regulations or prior order of the appropriate Federal banking agency;
(B)
restrict the growth of the institution;
(C)
dispose of any loan or asset involved;
(D)
rescind agreements or contracts; and
(E)
employ qualified officers or employees (who may be subject to approval by the appropriate Federal banking agency at the direction of such agency); and
(F)
take such other action as the banking agency determines to be appropriate.
(7)
Authority to limit activities.—
The authority to issue an order under this subsection or subsection (c) includes the authority to place limitations on the activities or functions of an insured depository institution or any institution-affiliated party.
(8)
Unsatisfactory asset quality, management, earnings, or liquidity as unsafe or unsound practice.—
If an insured depository institution receives, in its most recent report of examination, a less-than-satisfactory rating for asset quality, management, earnings, or liquidity, the appropriate Federal banking agency may (if the deficiency is not corrected) deem the institution to be engaging in an unsafe or unsound practice for purposes of this subsection.
(9)
(10)
Standard for certain orders.—
No authority under this subsection or subsection (c) to prohibit any institution-affiliated party from withdrawing, transferring, removing, dissipating, or disposing of any funds, assets, or other property may be exercised unless the appropriate Federal banking agency meets the standards of Rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, without regard to the requirement of such rule that the applicant show that the injury, loss, or damage is irreparable and immediate.
(c)
Temporary cease-and-desist orders
(1)
Whenever the appropriate Federal banking agency shall determine that the violation or threatened violation or the unsafe or unsound practice or practices, specified in the notice of charges served upon the depository institution or any institution-affiliated party pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection (b) of this section, or the continuation thereof, is likely to cause insolvency or significant dissipation of assets or earnings of the depository institution, or is likely to weaken the condition of the depository institution or otherwise prejudice the interests of its depositors prior to the completion of the proceedings conducted pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection (b) of this section, the agency may issue a temporary order requiring the depository institution or such party to cease and desist from any such violation or practice and to take affirmative action to prevent or remedy such insolvency, dissipation, condition, or prejudice pending completion of such proceedings. Such order may include any requirement authorized under subsection (b)(6). Such order shall become effective upon service upon the depository institution or such institution-affiliated party and, unless set aside, limited, or suspended by a court in proceedings authorized by paragraph (2) of this subsection, shall remain effective and enforceable pending the completion of the administrative proceedings pursuant to such notice and until such time as the agency shall dismiss the charges specified in such notice, or if a cease-and-desist order is issued against the depository institution or such party, until the effective date of such order.
(2)
Within ten days after the depository institution concerned or any institution-affiliated party has been served with a temporary cease-and-desist order, the depository institution or such party may apply to the United States district court for the judicial district in which the home office of the depository institution is located, or the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, for an injunction setting aside, limiting, or suspending the enforcement, operation, or effectiveness of such order pending the completion of the administrative proceedings pursuant to the notice of charges served upon the depository institution or such party under paragraph (1) of subsection (b) of this section, and such court shall have jurisdiction to issue such injunction.
(3)
Incomplete or inaccurate records.—
(A)
Temporary order.—
If a notice of charges served under subsection (b)(1) specifies, on the basis of particular facts and circumstances, that an insured depository institution’s books and records are so incomplete or inaccurate that the appropriate Federal banking agency is unable, through the normal supervisory process, to determine the financial condition of that depository institution or the details or purpose of any transaction or transactions that may have a material effect on the financial condition of that depository institution, the agency may issue a temporary order requiring—
(i)
the cessation of any activity or practice which gave rise, whether in whole or in part, to the incomplete or inaccurate state of the books or records; or
(ii)
affirmative action to restore such books or records to a complete and accurate state, until the completion of the proceedings under subsection (b)(1).
(B)
Effective period.—
Any temporary order issued under subparagraph (A)—
(i)
shall become effective upon service; and
(ii)
unless set aside, limited, or suspended by a court in proceedings under paragraph (2), shall remain in effect and enforceable until the earlier of—
(I)
the completion of the proceeding initiated under subsection (b)(1) in connection with the notice of charges; or
(II)
the date the appropriate Federal banking agency determines, by examination or otherwise, that the insured depository institution’s books and records are accurate and reflect the financial condition of the depository institution.
(4)
False advertising or misuse of names to indicate insured status.—
(A)
Temporary order.—
(i)
In general.—
If a notice of charges served under subsection (b)(1) specifies on the basis of particular facts that any person engaged or is engaging in conduct described in section 1828(a)(4) of this title, the Corporation or other appropriate Federal banking agency may issue a temporary order requiring—
(I)
the immediate cessation of any activity or practice described, which gave rise to the notice of charges; and
(II)
affirmative action to prevent any further, or to remedy any existing, violation.
(ii)
Effect of order.—
Any temporary order issued under this subparagraph shall take effect upon service.
(B)
Effective period of temporary order.—
A temporary order issued under subparagraph (A) shall remain effective and enforceable, pending the completion of an administrative proceeding pursuant to subsection (b)(1) in connection with the notice of charges—
(i)
until such time as the Corporation or other appropriate Federal banking agency dismisses the charges specified in such notice; or
(ii)
if a cease-and-desist order is issued against such person, until the effective date of such order.
(C)
Civil money penalties.—
Any violation of section 1828(a)(4) of this title shall be subject to civil money penalties, as set forth in subsection (i), except that for any person other than an insured depository institution or an institution-affiliated party that is found to have violated this paragraph, the Corporation or other appropriate Federal banking agency shall not be required to demonstrate any loss to an insured depository institution.
(d)
Temporary cease-and-desist orders; enforcement
(e)
Removal and prohibition authority
(1)
Authority to issue order.—
Whenever the appropriate Federal banking agency determines that—
(A)
any institution-affiliated party has, directly or indirectly—
(i)
violated—
(I)
any law or regulation;
(II)
any cease-and-desist order which has become final;
(III)
any condition imposed in writing by a Federal banking agency in connection with any action on any application, notice, or request by such depository institution or institution-affiliated party; or
(IV)
any written agreement between such depository institution and such agency;
(ii)
engaged or participated in any unsafe or unsound practice in connection with any insured depository institution or business institution; or
(iii)
committed or engaged in any act, omission, or practice which constitutes a breach of such party’s fiduciary duty;
(B)
by reason of the violation, practice, or breach described in any clause of subparagraph (A)—
(i)
such insured depository institution or business institution has suffered or will probably suffer financial loss or other damage;
(ii)
the interests of the insured depository institution’s depositors have been or could be prejudiced; or
(iii)
such party has received financial gain or other benefit by reason of such violation, practice, or breach; and
(C)
such violation, practice, or breach—
(i)
involves personal dishonesty on the part of such party; or
(ii)
demonstrates willful or continuing disregard by such party for the safety or soundness of such insured depository institution or business institution,
the appropriate Federal banking agency for the depository institution may serve upon such party a written notice of the agency’s intention to remove such party from office or to prohibit any further participation by such party, in any manner, in the conduct of the affairs of any insured depository institution.
(2)
Specific violations.—
(A)
In general.—
Whenever the appropriate Federal banking agency determines that—
(i)
an institution-affiliated party has committed a violation of any provision of subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31 and such violation was not inadvertent or unintentional;
(ii)
an officer or director of an insured depository institution has knowledge that an institution-affiliated party of the insured depository institution has violated any such provision or any provision of law referred to in subsection (g)(1)(A)(ii);
(iii)
an officer or director of an insured depository institution has committed any violation of the Depository Institution Management Interlocks Act [12 U.S.C. 3201 et seq.]; or
(iv)
an institution-affiliated party of a subsidiary (other than a bank) of a bank holding company or of a subsidiary (other than a savings association) of a savings and loan holding company has been convicted of any criminal offense involving dishonesty or a breach of trust or a criminal offense under section 1956, 1957, or 1960 of title 18 or has agreed to enter into a pretrial diversion or similar program in connection with a prosecution for such an offense,
the agency may serve upon such party, officer, or director a written notice of the agency’s intention to remove such party from office.
(B)
Factors to be considered.—
In determining whether an officer or director should be removed as a result of the application of subparagraph (A)(ii), the agency shall consider whether the officer or director took appropriate action to stop, or to prevent the recurrence of, a violation described in such subparagraph.
(3)
Suspension order.—
(A)
Suspension or prohibition authorized.—
If the appropriate Federal banking agency serves written notice under paragraph (1) or (2) to any institution-affiliated party of such agency’s intention to issue an order under such paragraph, the appropriate Federal banking agency may suspend such party from office or prohibit such party from further participation in any manner in the conduct of the affairs of the depository institution, if the agency—
(i)
determines that such action is necessary for the protection of the depository institution or the interests of the depository institution’s depositors; and
(ii)
serves such party with written notice of the suspension order.
(B)
Effective period.—
Any suspension order issued under subparagraph (A)—
(i)
shall become effective upon service; and
(ii)
unless a court issues a stay of such order under subsection (f), shall remain in effect and enforceable until—
(I)
the date the appropriate Federal banking agency dismisses the charges contained in the notice served under paragraph (1) or (2) with respect to such party; or
(II)
the effective date of an order issued by the agency to such party under paragraph (1) or (2).
(C)
Copy of order.—
If an appropriate Federal banking agency issues a suspension order under subparagraph (A) to any institution-affiliated party, the agency shall serve a copy of such order on any insured depository institution with which such party is associated at the time such order is issued.
(4)
A notice of intention to remove an institution-affiliated party from office or to prohibit such party from participating in the conduct of the affairs of an insured depository institution, shall contain a statement of the facts constituting grounds therefor, and shall fix a time and place at which a hearing will be held thereon. Such hearing shall be fixed for a date not earlier than thirty days nor later than sixty days after the date of service of such notice, unless an earli
er or a later date is set by the agency at the request of (A) such party, and for good cause shown, or (B) the Attorney General of the United States. Unless such party shall appear at the hearing in person or by a duly authorized representative, such party shall be deemed to have consented to the issuance of an order of such removal or prohibition. In the event of such consent, or if upon the record made at any such hearing the agency shall find that any of the grounds specified in such notice have been established, the agency may issue such orders of suspension or removal from office, or prohibition from participation in the conduct of the affairs of the depository institution, as it may deem appropriate. Any such order shall become effective at the expiration of thirty days after service upon such depository institution and such party concerned (except in the case of an order issued upon consent, which shall become effective at the time specified therein). Such order shall remain effective and enforceable except to such extent as it is stayed, modified, terminated, or set aside by action of the agency or a reviewing court.
(5)
For the purpose of enforcing any law, rule, regulation, or cease-and-desist order in connection with an interlocking relationship, the term “officer” within the term “institution-affiliated party” as used in this subsection means an employee or officer with management functions, and the term “director” within the term “institution-affiliated party” as used in this subsection includes an advisory or honorary director, a trustee of a depository institution under the control of trustees, or any person who has a representative or nominee serving in any such capacity.
(6)
Prohibition of certain specific activities.—
Any person subject to an order issued under this subsection shall not—
(A)
participate in any manner in the conduct of the affairs of any institution or agency specified in paragraph (7)(A);
(B)
solicit, procure, transfer, attempt to transfer, vote, or attempt to vote any proxy, consent, or authorization with respect to any voting rights in any institution described in subparagraph (A);
(C)
violate any voting agreement previously approved by the appropriate Federal banking agency; or
(D)
vote for a director, or serve or act as an institution-affiliated party.
(7)
Industrywide Prohibition.—
(A)
In general.—
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), any person who, pursuant to an order issued under this subsection or subsection (g), has been removed or suspended from office in an insured depository institution or prohibited from participating in the conduct of the affairs of an insured depository institution may not, while such order is in effect, continue or commence to hold any office in, or participate in any manner in the conduct of the affairs of—
(i)
any insured depository institution;
(ii)
any institution treated as an insured bank under subsection (b)(3) or (b)(4), or as a savings association under subsection (b)(9); 1
(iii)
any insured credit union under the Federal Credit Union Act [12 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.];
(iv)
any institution chartered under the Farm Credit Act of 1971 [12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.];
(v)
any appropriate Federal depository institution regulatory agency; and
(vi)
the Federal Housing Finance Agency and any Federal home loan bank.
(B)
Exception if agency provides written consent.—
If, on or after the date an order is issued under this subsection which removes or suspends from office any institution-affiliated party or prohibits such party from participating in the conduct of the affairs of an insured depository institution, such party receives the written consent of—
(i)
the agency that issued such order; and
(ii)
the appropriate Federal financial institutions regulatory agency of the institution described in any clause of subparagraph (A) with respect to which such party proposes to become an institution-affiliated party,
subparagraph (A) shall, to the extent of such consent, cease to apply to such party with respect to the institution described in each written consent. Any agency that grants such a written consent shall report such action to the Corporation and publicly disclose such consent.
(C)
Violation of paragraph treated as violation of order.—
Any violation of subparagraph (A) by any person who is subject to an order described in such subparagraph shall be treated as a violation of the order.
(D)
“Appropriate federal financial institutions regulatory agency” defined.—
For purposes of this paragraph and subsection (j), the term “appropriate Federal financial institutions regulatory agency” means—
(i)
the appropriate Federal banking agency, in the case of an insured depository institution;
(ii)
the Farm Credit Administration, in the case of an institution chartered under the Farm Credit Act of 1971 [12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.];
(iii)
the National Credit Union Administration Board, in the case of an insured credit union (as defined in section 101(7) of the Federal Credit Union Act [12 U.S.C. 1752(7)]); and
(iv)
the Secretary of the Treasury, in the case of the Federal Housing Finance Agency and any Federal home loan bank.
(E)
Consultation between agencies.—
The agencies referred to in clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (B) shall consult with each other before providing any written consent described in subparagraph (B).
(F)
Applicability.—
This paragraph shall only apply to a person who is an individual, unless the appropriate Federal banking agency specifically finds that it should apply to a corporation, firm, or other business enterprise.
(f)
Stay of suspension and/or prohibition of institution-affiliated party
(g)
Suspension, removal, and prohibition from participation orders in the case of certain criminal offenses
(1)
Suspension or prohibition.—
(A)
In general.—
Whenever any institution-affiliated party is the subject of any information, indictment, or complaint, involving the commission of or participation in—
(i)
a crime involving dishonesty or breach of trust which is punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year under State or Federal law, or
(ii)
a criminal violation of section 1956, 1957, or 1960 of title 18 or section 5322 or 5324 of title 31,
the appropriate Federal banking agency may, if continued service or participation by such party posed, poses, or may pose a threat to the interests of the depositors of, or threatened, threatens, or may threaten to impair public confidence in, any relevant depository institution (as defined in subparagraph (E)), by written notice served upon such party, suspend such party from office or prohibit such party from further participation in any manner in the conduct of the affairs of any depository institution.
(B)
Provisions applicable to notice.—
(i)
Copy.—
A copy of any notice under subparagraph (A) shall also be served upon any depository institution that the subject of the notice is affiliated with at the time the notice is issued.
(ii)
Effective period.—
A suspension or prohibition under subparagraph (A) shall remain in effect until the information, indictment, or complaint referred to in such subparagraph is finally disposed of or until terminated by the agency.
(C)
Removal or prohibition.—
(i)
In general.—
If a judgment of conviction or an agreement to enter a pretrial diversion or other similar program is entered against an institution-affiliated party in connection with a crime described in subparagraph (A)(i), at such time as such judgment is not subject to further appellate review, the appropriate Federal banking agency may, if continued service or participation by such party posed, poses, or may pose a threat to the interests of the depositors of, or threatened, threatens, or may threaten to impair public confidence in, any relevant depository institution (as defined in subparagraph (E)), issue and serve upon such party an order removing such party from office or prohibiting such party from further participation in any manner in the conduct of the affairs of any depository institution without the prior written consent of the appropriate agency.
(ii)
Required for certain offenses.—
In the case of a judgment of conviction or agreement against an institution-affiliated party in connection with a violation described in subparagraph (A)(ii), the appropriate Federal banking agency shall issue and serve upon such party an order removing such party from office or prohibiting such party from further participation in any manner in the conduct of the affairs of any depository institution without the prior written consent of the appropriate agency.
(D)
Provisions applicable to order.—
(i)
Copy.—
A copy of any order under subparagraph (C) shall also be served upon any depository institution that the subject of the order is affiliated with at the time the order is issued, whereupon the institution-affiliated party who is subject to the order (if a director or an officer) shall cease to be a director or officer of such depository institution.
(ii)
Effect of acquittal.—
A finding of not guilty or other disposition of the charge shall not preclude the agency from instituting proceedings after such finding or disposition to remove such party from office or to prohibit further participation in depository institution affairs, pursuant to paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (e) of this section.
(iii)
Effective period.—
Any notice of suspension or order of removal issued under this paragraph shall remain effective and outstanding until the completion of any hearing or appeal authorized under paragraph (3) unless terminated by the agency.
(E)
Relevant depository institution.—
For purposes of this subsection, the term “relevant depository institution” means any depository institution of which the party is or was an institution-affiliated party at the time at which—
(i)
the information, indictment, or complaint described in subparagraph (A) was issued; or
(ii)
the notice is issued under subparagraph (A) or the order is issued under subparagraph (C)(i).
(2)
If at any time, because of the suspension of one or more directors pursuant to this section, there shall be on the board of directors of a national bank less than a quorum of directors not so suspended, all powers and functions vested in or exercisable by such board shall vest in and be exercisable by the director or directors on the board not so suspended, until such time as there shall be a quorum of the board of directors. In the event all of the directors of a national bank are suspended pursuant to this section, the Comptroller of the Currency shall appoint persons to serve temporarily as directors in their place and stead pending the termination of such suspensions, or until such time as those who have been suspended, cease to be directors of the bank and their respective successors take office.
(3)
Within thirty days from service of any notice of suspension or order of removal issued pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection, the institution-affiliated party concerned may request in writing an opportunity to appear before the agency to show that the continued service to or participation in the conduct of the affairs of the depository institution by such party does not, or is not likely to, pose a threat to the interests of the bank’s 3
3
 So in original. Probably should be “depository institution’s”.
depositors or threaten to impair public confidence in the depository institution. Upon receipt of any such request, the appropriate Federal banking agency shall fix a time (not more than thirty days after receipt of such request, unless extended at the request of such party) and place at which such party may appear, personally or through counsel, before one or more members of the agency or designated employees of the agency to submit written materials (or, at the discretion of the agency, oral testimony) and oral argument. Within sixty days of such hearing, the agency shall notify such party whether the suspension or prohibition from participation in any manner in the conduct of the affairs of the depository institution will be continued, terminated, or otherwise modified, or whether the order removing such party from office or prohibiting such party from further participation in any manner in the conduct of the affairs of the depository institution will be rescinded or otherwise modified. Such notification shall contain a statement of the basis for the agency’s decision, if adverse to such party. The Federal banking agencies are authorized to prescribe such rules as may be necessary to effectuate the purposes of this subsection.
(h)
Hearings and judicial review
(1)
Any hearing provided for in this section (other than the hearing provided for in subsection (g)(3) of this section) shall be held in the Federal judicial district or in the territory in which the home office of the depository institution is located unless the party afforded the hearing consents to another place, and shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of chapter 5 of title 5. After such hearing, and within ninety days after the appropriate Federal banking agency or Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System has notified the parties that the case has been submitted to it for final decision, it shall render its decision (which shall include findings of fact upon which its decision is predicated) and shall issue and serve upon each party to the proceeding an order or orders consistent with the provisions of this section. Judicial review of any such order shall be exclusively as provided in this subsection (h). Unless a petition for review is timely filed in a court of appeals of the United States, as hereinafter provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, and thereafter until the record in the proceeding has been filed as so provided, the issuing agency may at any time, upon such notice and in such manner as it shall deem proper, modify, terminate, or set aside any such order. Upon such filing of the record, the agency may modify, terminate, or set aside any such order with permission of the court.
(2)
Any party to any proceeding under paragraph (1) may obtain a review of any order served pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection (other than an order issued with the consent of the depository institution or the institution-affiliated party concerned, or an order issued under paragraph (1) of subsection (g) of this section) by the filing in the court of appeals of the United States for the circuit in which the home office of the depository institution is located, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, within thirty days after the date of service of such order, a written petition praying that the order of the agency be modified, terminated, or set aside. A copy of such petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the agency, and thereupon the agency shall file in the court the record in the proceeding, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. Upon the filing of such petition, such court shall have jurisdiction, which upon the filing of the record shall except as provided in the last sentence of said paragraph (1) be exclusive, to affirm, modify, terminate, or set aside, in whole or in part, the order of the agency. Review of such proceedings shall be had as provided in chapter 7 of title 5. The judgment and decree of the court shall be final, except that the same shall be subject to review by the Supreme Court upon certiorari, as provided in section 1254 of title 28.
(3)
The commencement of proceedings for judicial review under paragraph (2) of this subsection shall not, unless specifically ordered by the court, operate as a stay of any order issued by the agency.
(i)
Jurisdiction and enforcement; penalty
(1)
The appropriate Federal banking agency may in its discretion apply to the United States district court, or the United States court of any territory, within the jurisdiction of which the home office of the depository institution is located, for the enforcement of any effective and outstanding notice or order issued under this section or under section 1831o or 1831p–1 of this title, and such courts shall have jurisdiction and power to order and require compliance herewith; but except as otherwise provided in this section or under section 1831o or 1831p–1 of this title no court shall have jurisdiction to affect by injunction or otherwise the issuance or enforcement of any notice or order under any such section, or to review, modify, suspend, terminate, or set aside any such notice or order.
(2)
Civil money penalty.—
(A)
First tier.—
Any insured depository institution which, and any institution-affiliated party who—
(i)
violates any law or regulation;
(ii)
violates any final order or temporary order issued pursuant to subsection (b), (c), (e), (g), or (s) or any final order under section 1831o or 1831p–1 of this title;
(iii)
violates any condition imposed in writing by a Federal banking agency in connection with any action on any application, notice, or other request by the depository institution or institution-affiliated party; or
(iv)
violates any written agreement between such depository institution and such agency,
shall forfeit and pay a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each day during which such violation continues.
(B)
Second tier.—
Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), any insured depository institution which, and any institution-affiliated party who—
(i)
(I)
commits any violation described in any clause of subparagraph (A);
(II)
recklessly engages in an unsafe or unsound practice in conducting the affairs of such insured depository institution; or
(III)
breaches any fiduciary duty;
(ii)
which violation, practice, or breach—
(I)
is part of a pattern of misconduct;
(II)
causes or is likely to cause more than a minimal loss to such depository institution; or
(III)
results in pecuniary gain or other benefit to such party,
shall forfeit and pay a civil penalty of not more than $25,000 for each day during which such violation, practice, or breach continues.
(C)
Third tier.—
Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A) and (B), any insured depository institution which, and any institution-affiliated party who—
(i)
knowingly—
(I)
commits any violation described in any clause of subparagraph (A);
(II)
engages in any unsafe or unsound practice in conducting the affairs of such depository institution; or
(III)
breaches any fiduciary duty; and
(ii)
knowingly or recklessly causes a substantial loss to such depository institution or a substantial pecuniary gain or other benefit to such party by reason of such violation, practice, or breach,
shall forfeit and pay a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed the applicable maximum amount determined under subparagraph (D) for each day during which such violation, practice, or breach continues.
(D)
Maximum amounts of penalties for any violation described in subparagraph (c).—
The maximum daily amount of any civil penalty which may be assessed pursuant to subparagraph (C) for any violation, practice, or breach described in such subparagraph is—
(i)
in the case of any person other than an insured depository institution, an amount to not exceed $1,000,000; and
(ii)
in the case of any insured depository institution, an amount not to exceed the lesser of—
(I)
$1,000,000; or
(II)
1 percent of the total assets of such institution.
(E)
Assessment.—
(i)
Written notice.—
Any penalty imposed under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) may be assessed and collected by the appropriate Federal banking agency by written notice.
(ii)
Finality of assessment.—
If, with respect to any assessment under clause (i), a hearing is not requested pursuant to subparagraph (H) within the period of time allowed under such subparagraph, the assessment shall constitute a final and unappealable order.
(F)
Authority to modify or remit penalty.—
Any appropriate Federal banking agency may compromise, modify, or remit any penalty which such agency may assess or had already assessed under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C).
(G)
Mitigating factors.—
In determining the amount of any penalty imposed under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C), the appropriate agency shall take into account the appropriateness of the penalty with respect to—
(i)
the size of financial resources and good faith of the insured depository institution or other person charged;
(ii)
the gravity of the violation;
(iii)
the history of previous violations; and
(iv)
such other matters as justice may require.
(H)
Hearing.—
The insured depository institution or other person against whom any penalty is assessed under this paragraph shall be afforded an agency hearing if such institution or person submits a request for such hearing within 20 days after the issuance of the notice of assessment.
(I)
Collection.—
(i)
Referral.—
If any insured depository institution or other person fails to pay an assessment after any penalty assessed under this paragraph has become final, the agency that imposed the penalty shall recover the amount assessed by action in the appropriate United States district court.
(ii)
Appropriateness of penalty not reviewable.—
In any civil action under clause (i), the validity and appropriateness of the penalty shall not be subject to review.
(J)
Disbursement.—
All penalties collected under authority of this paragraph shall be deposited into the Treasury.
(K)
Regulations.—
Each appropriate Federal banking agency shall prescribe regulations establishing such procedures as may be necessary to carry out this paragraph.
(3)
Notice under this section after separation from service.—
The resignation, termination of employment or participation, or separation of a institution-affiliated party (including a separation caused by the closing of an insured depository institution) shall not affect the jurisdiction and authority of the appropriate Federal banking agency to issue any notice or order and proceed under this section against any such party, if such notice or order is served before the end of the 6-year period beginning on the date such party ceased to be such a party with respect to such depository institution (whether such date occurs before, on, or after August 9, 1989).
(4)
Prejudgment attachment.—
(A)
In general.—
In any action brought by an appropriate Federal banking agency (excluding the Corporation when acting in a manner described in section 1821(d)(18) of this title) pursuant to this section, or in actions brought in aid of, or to enforce an order in, any administrative or other civil action for money damages, restitution, or civil money penalties brought by such agency, the court may, upon application of the agency, issue a restraining order that—
(i)
prohibits any person subject to the proceeding from withdrawing, transferring, removing, dissipating, or disposing of any funds, assets or other property; and
(ii)
appoints a temporary receiver to administer the restraining order.
(B)
Standard.—
(i)
Showing.—
Rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure shall apply with respect to any proceeding under subparagraph (A) without regard to the requirement of such rule that the applicant show that the injury, loss, or damage is irreparable and immediate.
(ii)
State proceeding.—
If, in the case of any proceeding in a State court, the court determines that rules of civil procedure available under the laws of such State provide substantially similar protections to a party’s right to due process as Rule 65 (as modified with respect to such proceeding by clause (i)), the relief sought under subparagraph (A) may be requested under the laws of such State.
(j)
Criminal penalty
Whoever, being subject to an order in effect under subsection (e) or (g), without the prior written approval of the appropriate Federal financial institutions regulatory agency, knowingly participates, directly or indirectly, in any manner (including by engaging in an activity specifically prohibited in such an order or in subsection (e)(6)) in the conduct of the affairs of—
(1)
any insured depository institution;
(2)
any institution treated as an insured bank under subsection (b)(3) or (b)(4);
(3)
any insured credit union (as defined in section 101(7) of the Federal Credit Union Act [12 U.S.C. 1752(7)]); or
(4)
any institution chartered under the Farm Credit Act of 1971 [12 U.S.C. 2001 et seq.],
shall be fined not more than $1,000,000, imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both.
(k)
Repealed. Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, § 920(c), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 488
(l)
Notice of service
(m)
Notice to State authorities
(n)
Ancillary provisions; subpena power, etc.
(o)
Termination of membership of State bank in Federal Reserve System
(p)
Banks not receiving deposits
(q)
Assumption of liabilities
(r)
Action or proceeding against foreign bank; basis; removal of officer or other person; venue; service of process
(1)
Except as otherwise specifically provided in this section, the provisions of this section shall be applied to foreign banks in accordance with this subsection.
(2)
An act or practice outside the United States on the part of a foreign bank or any officer, director, employee, or agent thereof may not constitute the basis for any action by any officer or agency of the United States under this section, unless—
(A)
such officer or agency alleges a belief that such act or practice has been, is, or is likely to be a cause of or carried on in connection with or in furtherance of an act or practice within any one or more States which, in and of itself, would constitute an appropriate basis for action by a Federal officer or agency under this section; or
(B)
the alleged act or practice is one which, if proven, would, in the judgment of the Board of Directors, adversely affect the insurance risk assumed by the Corporation.
(3)
In any case in which any action or proceeding is brought pursuant to an allegation under paragraph (2) of this subsection for the suspension or removal of any officer, director, or other person associated with a foreign bank, and such person fails to appear promptly as a party to such action or proceeding and to comply with any effective order or judgment therein, any failure by the foreign bank to secure his removal from any office he holds in such bank and from any further participation in its affairs shall, in and of itself, constitute grounds for termination of the insurance of the deposits in any branch of the bank.
(4)
Where the venue of any judicial or administrative proceeding under this section is to be determined by reference to the location of the home office of a bank, the venue of such a proceeding with respect to a foreign bank having one or more branches or agencies in not more than one judicial district or other relevant jurisdiction shall be within such jurisdiction. Where such a bank has branches or agencies in more than one such jurisdiction, the venue shall be in the jurisdiction within which the branch or branches or agency or agencies involved in the proceeding are located, and if there is more than one such jurisdiction, the venue shall be proper in any such jurisdiction in which the proceeding is brought or to which it may appropriately be transferred.
(5)
Any service required or authorized to be made on a foreign bank may be made on any branch or agency located within any State, but if such service is in connection with an action or proceeding involving one or more branches or one or more agencies located in any State, service shall be made on at least one branch or agency so involved.
(s)
Compliance with monetary transaction recordkeeping and report requirements
(1)
Compliance procedures required
(2)
Examinations of depository institution to include review of compliance procedures
(A)
In general
(B)
Exam report requirement
(3)
Order to comply with requirements
If the appropriate Federal banking agency determines that an insured depository institution—
(A)
has failed to establish and maintain the procedures described in paragraph (1); or
(B)
has failed to correct any problem with the procedures maintained by such depository institution which was previously reported to the depository institution by such agency,
(t)
Authority of FDIC to take enforcement action against insured depository institutions and institution-affiliated parties
(1)
Recommending action by appropriate Federal banking agency
(2)
FDIC’s authority to act if appropriate Federal banking agency fails to follow recommendation
If the appropriate Federal banking agency does not, before the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date on which the agency receives the recommendation under paragraph (1), take the enforcement action recommended by the Corporation or provide a plan acceptable to the Corporation for responding to the Corporation’s concerns, the Corporation may take the recommended enforcement action if the Board of Directors determines, upon a vote of its members, that—
(A)
the insured depository institution is in an unsafe or unsound condition;
(B)
the institution or institution-affiliated party is engaging in unsafe or unsound practices, and the recommended enforcement action will prevent the institution or institution-affiliated party from continuing such practices;
(C)
the conduct or threatened conduct (including any acts or omissions) poses a risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund, or may prejudice the interests of the institution’s depositors or 4
4
 So in original. Probably should be “; or”.
(D)
the conduct or threatened conduct (including any acts or omissions) of the depository institution holding company poses a risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund, provided that such authority may not be used with respect to a depository institution holding company that is in generally sound condition and whose conduct does not pose a foreseeable and material risk of loss to the Deposit Insurance Fund; 5
5
 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a period.
(3)
Effect of exigent circumstances
(A)
Authority to act
(B)
Agreement on exigent circumstances
(4)
Corporation’s powers; institution’s duties
For purposes of this subsection—
(A)
the Corporation shall have the same powers with respect to any insured depository institution and its affiliates as the appropriate Federal banking agency has with respect to the institution and its affiliates; and
(B)
the institution and its affiliates shall have the same duties and obligations with respect to the Corporation as the institution and its affiliates have with respect to the appropriate Federal banking agency.
(5)
Requests for formal actions and investigations
(A)
Submission of requests
(B)
Agencies required to report on requests
(6)
6
6
 So in original. Two pars. (6) have been enacted.
Powers and duties with respect to depository institution holding companies
For purposes of exercising the backup authority provided in this subsection—
(A)
the Corporation shall have the same powers with respect to a depository institution holding company and its affiliates as the appropriate Federal banking agency has with respect to the holding company and its affiliates; and
(B)
the holding company and its affiliates shall have the same duties and obligations with respect to the Corporation as the holding company and its affiliates have with respect to the appropriate Federal banking agency.
(6)
6 Referral to Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection
(u)
Public disclosures of final orders and agreements
(1)
In general
The appropriate Federal banking agency shall publish and make available to the public on a monthly basis—
(A)
any written agreement or other written statement for which a violation may be enforced by the appropriate Federal banking agency, unless the appropriate Federal banking agency, in its discretion, determines that publication would be contrary to the public interest;
(B)
any final order issued with respect to any administrative enforcement proceeding initiated by such agency under this section or any other law; and
(C)
any modification to or termination of any order or agreement made public pursuant to this paragraph.
(2)
Hearings
(3)
Transcript of hearing
(4)
Delay of publication under exceptional circumstances
(5)
Documents filed under seal in public enforcement hearings
(6)
Retention of documents
(7)
Disclosures to Congress
(v)
Foreign investigations
(1)
Requesting assistance from foreign banking authorities
In conducting any investigation, examination, or enforcement action under this chapter, the appropriate Federal banking agency may—
(A)
request the assistance of any foreign banking authority; and
(B)
maintain an office outside the United States.
(2)
Providing assistance to foreign banking authorities
(A)
In general
(B)
Investigation by Federal banking agency
(C)
Factors to consider
In deciding whether to provide assistance under this paragraph, the appropriate Federal banking agency shall consider—
(i)
whether the requesting authority has agreed to provide reciprocal assistance with respect to banking matters within the jurisdiction of any appropriate Federal banking agency; and
(ii)
whether compliance with the request would prejudice the public interest of the United States.
(D)
Treatment of foreign banking authority
(3)
Rule of construction
(w)
Termination of insurance for money laundering or cash transaction reporting offenses
(1)
In general
(A)
Conviction of title 18 offenses
(i)
Duty to notify
(ii)
Notice of termination; pretermination hearing
(B)
Conviction of title 31 offenses
(C)
Notice to State supervisor
(2)
Factors to be considered
In determining whether to terminate insurance under paragraph (1), the Board of Directors shall take into account the following factors:
(A)
The extent to which directors or senior executive officers of the depository institution knew of, or were involved in, the commission of the money laundering offense of which the institution was found guilty.
(B)
The extent to which the offense occurred despite the existence of policies and procedures within the depository institution which were designed to prevent the occurrence of any such offense.
(C)
The extent to which the depository institution has fully cooperated with law enforcement authorities with respect to the investigation of the money laundering offense of which the institution was found guilty.
(D)
The extent to which the depository institution has implemented additional internal controls (since the commission of the offense of which the depository institution was found guilty) to prevent the occurrence of any other money laundering offense.
(E)
The extent to which the interest of the local community in having adequate deposit and credit services available would be threatened by the termination of insurance.
(3)
Notice to State banking supervisor and public
When the order to terminate insured status initiated pursuant to this subsection is final, the Board of Directors shall—
(A)
notify the State banking supervisor of any State depository institution described in paragraph (1), where appropriate, at least 10 days prior to the effective date of the order of termination of the insured status of such depository institution, including a State branch of a foreign bank; and
(B)
publish notice of the termination of the insured status of the depository institution in the Federal Register.
(4)
Temporary insurance of previously insured deposits
(5)
Successor liability
(6)
“Senior executive officer” defined
(Sept. 21, 1950, ch. 967, § 2[8], 64 Stat. 879; Pub. L. 89–695, title II, §§ 202, 204, Oct. 16, 1966, 80 Stat. 1046, 1054; Pub. L. 93–495, title I, § 110, Oct. 28, 1974, 88 Stat. 1506; Pub. L. 95–369, §§ 6(c)(14), (15), 11, Sept. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 618, 624; Pub. L. 95–630, title I, §§ 107(a)(1), (b), (c)(1), (d)(1), (e)(1), 111(a), title II, § 208(a), title III, §§ 303, 304, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3649, 3653, 3654, 3656, 3660, 3665, 3674, 3676; Pub. L. 97–320, title I, § 113(g), (h), title IV, §§ 404(c), 424(c), (d)(6), (e), 425(b), (c), 427(d), 433(a), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1473, 1474, 1512, 1523–1527; Pub. L. 99–570, title I, § 1359(a), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–27; Pub. L. 101–73, title II, § 201, title IX, §§ 901(b)(1), (d), 902(a), 903(a), 904(a), 905(a), 906(a), 907(a), 908(a), 912, 913(a), 920(a), (c), 926, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 187, 446, 450, 453, 457, 459, 462, 477, 482, 483, 488; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXV, §§ 2521(b)(1), 2532(a), 2547(a)(1), (2), 2596(a), (b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4864, 4880, 4886, 4887, 4908; Pub. L. 102–233, title III, § 302(a), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1767; Pub. L. 102–242, title I, § 131(c)(1), (2), title III, §§ 302(e)(5), formerly (e)(4), 307, Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2266, 2349, 2360; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §§ 1503(a), 1504(a), title XVI, §§ 1603(d)(2)–(4), 1605(a)(5)(A), (11), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4048
cite as: 12 USC 1818