U.S Code last checked for updates: Oct 20, 2019
§ 2210.
Indemnification and limitation of liability
(a)
Requirement of financial protection for licensees

Each license issued under section 2133 or 2134 of this title and each construction permit issued under section 2235 of this title shall, and each license issued under section 2073, 2093, or 2111 of this title may, for the public purposes cited in section 2012(i) of this title, have as a condition of the license a requirement that the licensee have and maintain financial protection of such type and in such amounts as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (in this section referred to as the “Commission”) in the exercise of its licensing and regulatory authority and responsibility shall require in accordance with subsection (b) to cover public liability claims. Whenever such financial protection is required, it may be a further condition of the license that the licensee execute and maintain an indemnification agreement in accordance with subsection (c). The Commission may require, as a further condition of issuing a license, that an applicant waive any immunity from public liability conferred by Federal or State law.

(b)
Amount and type of financial protection for licensees
(1)
The amount of primary financial protection required shall be the amount of liability insurance available from private sources, except that the Commission may establish a lesser amount on the basis of criteria set forth in writing, which it may revise from time to time, taking into consideration such factors as the following: (A) the cost and terms of private insurance, (B) the type, size, and location of the licensed activity and other factors pertaining to the hazard, and (C) the nature and purpose of the licensed activity: Provided, That for facilities designed for producing substantial amounts of electricity and having a rated capacity of 100,000 electrical kilowatts or more, the amount of primary financial protection required shall be the maximum amount available at reasonable cost and on reasonable terms from private sources (excluding the amount of private liability insurance available under the industry retrospective rating plan required in this subsection). Such primary financial protection may include private insurance, private contractual indemnities, self-insurance, other proof of financial responsibility, or a combination of such measures and shall be subject to such terms and conditions as the Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, prescribe. The Commission shall require licensees that are required to have and maintain primary financial protection equal to the maximum amount of liability insurance available from private sources to maintain, in addition to such primary financial protection, private liability insurance available under an industry retrospective rating plan providing for premium charges deferred in whole or major part until public liability from a nuclear incident exceeds or appears likely to exceed the level of the primary financial protection required of the licensee involved in the nuclear incident: Provided, That such insurance is available to, and required of, all of the licensees of such facilities without regard to the manner in which they obtain other types or amounts of such primary financial protection: And provided further, That the maximum amount of the standard deferred premium that may be charged a licensee following any nuclear incident under such a plan shall not be more than $95,800,000 (subject to adjustment for inflation under subsection (t)), but not more than $15,000,000 in any 1 year (subject to adjustment for inflation under subsection (t)), for each facility for which such licensee is required to maintain the maximum amount of primary financial protection: And provided further, That the amount which may be charged a licensee following any nuclear incident shall not exceed the licensee’s pro rata share of the aggregate public liability claims and costs (excluding legal costs subject to subsection (o)(1)(D), payment of which has not been authorized under such subsection) arising out of the nuclear incident. Payment of any State premium taxes which may be applicable to any deferred premium provided for in this chapter shall be the responsibility of the licensee and shall not be included in the retrospective premium established by the Commission.
(2)
(A)
The Commission may, on a case by case basis, assess annual deferred premium amounts less than the standard annual deferred premium amount assessed under paragraph (1)—
(i)
for any facility, if more than one nuclear incident occurs in any one calendar year; or
(ii)
for any licensee licensed to operate more than one facility, if the Commission determines that the financial impact of assessing the standard annual deferred premium amount under paragraph (1) would result in undue financial hardship to such licensee or the ratepayers of such licensee.
(B)
In the event that the Commission assesses a lesser annual deferred premium amount under subparagraph (A), the Commission shall require payment of the difference between the standard annual deferred premium assessment under paragraph (1) and any such lesser annual deferred premium assessment within a reasonable period of time, with interest at a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury on the basis of the current average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturities during the month preceding the date that the standard annual deferred premium assessment under paragraph (1) would become due.
(3)
The Commission shall establish such requirements as are necessary to assure availability of funds to meet any assessment of deferred premiums within a reasonable time when due, and may provide reinsurance or shall otherwise guarantee the payment of such premiums in the event it appears that the amount of such premiums will not be available on a timely basis through the resources of private industry and insurance. Any agreement by the Commission with a licensee or indemnitor to guarantee the payment of deferred premiums may contain such terms as the Commission deems appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section and to assure reimbursement to the Commission for its payments made due to the failure of such licensee or indemnitor to meet any of its obligations arising under or in connection with financial protection required under this subsection including without limitation terms creating liens upon the licensed facility and the revenues derived therefrom or any other property or revenues of such licensee to secure such reimbursement and consent to the automatic revocation of any license.
(4)
(A)
In the event that the funds available to pay valid claims in any year are insufficient as a result of the limitation on the amount of deferred premiums that may be required of a licensee in any year under paragraph (1) or (2), or the Commission is required to make reinsurance or guaranteed payments under paragraph (3), the Commission shall, in order to advance the necessary funds—
(i)
request the Congress to appropriate sufficient funds to satisfy such payments; or
(ii)
to the extent approved in appropriation Acts, issue to the Secretary of the Treasury obligations in such forms and denominations, bearing such maturities, and subject to such terms and conditions as may be agreed to by the Commission and the Secretary of the Treasury.
(B)
Except for funds appropriated for purposes of making reinsurance or guaranteed payments under paragraph (3), any funds appropriated under subparagraph (A)(i) shall be repaid to the general fund of the United States Treasury from amounts made available by standard deferred premium assessments, with interest at a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury on the basis of the current average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturities during the month preceding the date that the funds appropriated under such subparagraph are made available.
(C)
Except for funds appropriated for purposes of making reinsurance or guaranteed payments under paragraph (3), redemption of obligations issued under subparagraph (A)(ii) shall be made by the Commission from amounts made available by standard deferred premium assessments. Such obligations shall bear interest at a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury by taking into consideration the average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations to the United States of comparable maturities during the month preceding the issuance of the obligations under this paragraph. The Secretary of the Treasury shall purchase any issued obligations, and for such purpose the Secretary of the Treasury may use as a public debt transaction the proceeds from the sale of any securities issued under chapter 31 of title 31, and the purposes for which securities may be issued under such chapter are extended to include any purchase of such obligations. The Secretary of the Treasury may at any time sell any of the obligations acquired by the Secretary of the Treasury under this paragraph. All redemptions, purchases, and sales by the Secretary of the Treasury of obligations under this paragraph shall be treated as public debt transactions of the United States.
(5)
(A)
For purposes of this section only, the Commission shall consider a combination of facilities described in subparagraph (B) to be a single facility having a rated capacity of 100,000 electrical kilowatts or more.
(B)
A combination of facilities referred to in subparagraph (A) is two or more facilities located at a single site, each of which has a rated capacity of 100,000 electrical kilowatts or more but not more than 300,000 electrical kilowatts, with a combined rated capacity of not more than 1,300,000 electrical kilowatts.
(c)
Indemnification of licensees by Nuclear Regulatory Commission

The Commission shall, with respect to licenses issued between August 30, 1954, and December 31, 2025, for which it requires financial protection of less than $560,000,000, agree to indemnify and hold harmless the licensee and other persons indemnified, as their interest may appear, from public liability arising from nuclear incidents which is in excess of the level of financial protection required of the licensee. The aggregate indemnity for all persons indemnified in connection with each nuclear incident shall not exceed $500,000,000 excluding costs of investigating and settling claims and defending suits for damage: Provided, however, That this amount of indemnity shall be reduced by the amount that the financial protection required shall exceed $60,000,000. Such a contract of indemnification shall cover public liability arising out of or in connection with the licensed activity. With respect to any production or utilization facility for which a construction permit is issued between August 30, 1954, and December 31, 2025, the requirements of this subsection shall apply to any license issued for such facility subsequent to December 31, 2025.

(d)
Indemnification of contractors by Department of Energy
(1)
(A)
In addition to any other authority the Secretary of Energy (in this section referred to as the “Secretary”) may have, the Secretary shall, until December 31, 2025, enter into agreements of indemnification under this subsection with any person who may conduct activities under a contract with the Department of Energy that involve the risk of public liability and that are not subject to financial protection requirements under subsection (b) or agreements of indemnification under subsection (c) or (k).
(B)
(i)
(I)
Beginning 60 days after August 20, 1988, agreements of indemnification under subparagraph (A) shall be the exclusive means of indemnification for public liability arising from activities described in such subparagraph, including activities conducted under a contract that contains an indemnification clause under Public Law 85–804 [50 U.S.C. 1431 et seq.] entered into between August 1, 1987, and August 20, 1988.
(II)
The Secretary may incorporate in agreements of indemnification under subparagraph (A) the provisions relating to the waiver of any issue or defense as to charitable or governmental immunity authorized in subsection (n)(1) to be incorporated in agreements of indemnification. Any such provisions incorporated under this subclause shall apply to any nuclear incident arising out of nuclear waste activities subject to an agreement of indemnification under subparagraph (A).
(ii)
Public liability arising out of nuclear waste activities subject to an agreement of indemnification under subparagraph (A) that are funded by the Nuclear Waste Fund established in section 10222 of this title shall be compensated from the Nuclear Waste Fund in an amount not to exceed the maximum amount of financial protection required of licensees under subsection (b).
(2)
In an agreement of indemnification entered into under paragraph (1), the Secretary—
(A)
may require the contractor to provide and maintain financial protection of such a type and in such amounts as the Secretary shall determine to be appropriate to cover public liability arising out of or in connection with the contractual activity; and
(B)
shall indemnify the persons indemnified against such liability above the amount of the financial protection required, in the amount of $10,000,000,000 (subject to adjustment for inflation under subsection (t)), in the aggregate, for all persons indemnified in connection with the contract and for each nuclear incident, including such legal costs of the contractor as are approved by the Secretary.
(3)
All agreements of indemnification under which the Department of Energy (or its predecessor agencies) may be required to indemnify any person under this section shall be deemed to be amended, on August 8, 2005, to reflect the amount of indemnity for public liability and any applicable financial protection required of the contractor under this subsection.
(4)
Financial protection under paragraph (2) and indemnification under paragraph (1) shall be the exclusive means of financial protection and indemnification under this section for any Department of Energy demonstration reactor licensed by the Commission under section 5842 of this title.
(5)
In the case of nuclear incidents occurring outside the United States, the amount of the indemnity provided by the Secretary under this subsection shall not exceed $500,000,000.
(6)
The provisions of this subsection may be applicable to lump sum as well as cost type contracts and to contracts and projects financed in whole or in part by the Secretary.
(7)
A contractor with whom an agreement of indemnification has been executed under paragraph (1)(A) and who is engaged in activities connected with the underground detonation of a nuclear explosive device shall be liable, to the extent so indemnified under this subsection, for injuries or damage sustained as a result of such detonation in the same manner and to the same extent as would a private person acting as principal, and no immunity or defense founded in the Federal, State, or municipal character of the contractor or of the work to be performed under the contract shall be effective to bar such liability.
(e)
Limitation on aggregate public liability
(1)
The aggregate public liability for a single nuclear incident of persons indemnified, including such legal costs as are authorized to be paid under subsection (o)(1)(D), shall not exceed—
(A)
in the case of facilities designed for producing substantial amounts of electricity and having a rated capacity of 100,000 electrical kilowatts or more, the maximum amount of financial protection required of such facilities under subsection (b) (plus any surcharge assessed under subsection (o)(1)(E));
(B)
in the case of contractors with whom the Secretary has entered into an agreement of indemnification under subsection (d), the amount of indemnity and financial protection that may be required under paragraph (2) of subsection (d); and
(C)
in the case of all other licensees of the Commission required to maintain financial protection under this section—
(i)
$500,000,000, together with the amount of financial protection required of the licensee; or
(ii)
if the amount of financial protection required of the licensee exceeds $60,000,000, $560,000,000 or the amount of financial protection required of the licensee, whichever amount is more.
(2)
In the event of a nuclear incident involving damages in excess of the amount of aggregate public liability under paragraph (1), the Congress will thoroughly review the particular incident in accordance with the procedures set forth in subsection (i) and will in accordance with such procedures, take whatever action is determined to be necessary (including approval of appropriate compensation plans and appropriation of funds) to provide full and prompt compensation to the public for all public liability claims resulting from a disaster of such magnitude.
(3)
No provision of paragraph (1) may be construed to preclude the Congress from enacting a revenue measure, applicable to licensees of the Commission required to maintain financial protection pursuant to subsection (b), to fund any action undertaken pursuant to paragraph (2).
(4)
With respect to any nuclear incident occurring outside of the United States to which an agreement of indemnification entered into under the provisions of subsection (d) is applicable, such aggregate public liability shall not exceed the amount of $500,000,000, together with the amount of financial protection required of the contractor.
(f)
Collection of fees by Nuclear Regulatory Commission

The Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, is authorized to collect a fee from all persons with whom an indemnification agreement is executed under this section. This fee shall be $30 per year per thousand kilowatts of thermal energy capacity for facilities licensed under section 2133 of this title: Provided, That the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, is authorized to reduce the fee for such facilities in reasonable relation to increases in financial protection required above a level of $60,000,000. For facilities licensed under section 2134 of this title, and for construction permits under section 2235 of this title, the Commission is authorized to reduce the fee set forth above. The Commission shall establish criteria in writing for determination of the fee for facilities licensed under section 2134 of this title, taking into consideration such factors as (1) the type, size, and location of facility involved, and other factors pertaining to the hazard, and (2) the nature and purpose of the facility. For other licenses, the Commission shall collect such nominal fees as it deems appropriate. No fee under this subsection shall be less than $100 per year.

(g)
Use of services of private insurers

In administering the provisions of this section, the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, shall use, to the maximum extent practicable, the facilities and services of private insurance organizations, and the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, may contract to pay a reasonable compensation for such services. Any contract made under the provisions of this subsection may be made without regard to the provisions of section 6101 of title 41 upon a showing by the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, that advertising is not reasonably practicable and advance payments may be made.

(h)
Conditions of agreements of indemnification

The agreement of indemnification may contain such terms as the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, deems appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section. Such agreement shall provide that, when the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, makes a determination that the United States will probably be required to make indemnity payments under this section, the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, shall collaborate with any person indemnified and may approve the payment of any claim under the agreement of indemnification, appear through the Attorney General on behalf of the person indemnified, take charge of such action, and settle or defend any such action. The Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, shall have final authority on behalf of the United States to settle or approve the settlement of any such claim on a fair and reasonable basis with due regard for the purposes of this chapter. Such settlement shall not include expenses in connection with the claim incurred by the person indemnified.

(i)
Compensation plans
(1)
After any nuclear incident involving damages that are likely to exceed the applicable amount of aggregate public liability under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (e)(1), the Secretary or the Commisison,1
1
 So in original. Probably should be “Commission,”.
as appropriate, shall—
(A)
make a survey of the causes and extent of damage; and
(B)
expeditiously submit a report setting forth the results of such survey to the Congress, to the Representatives of the affected districts, to the Senators of the affected States, and (except for information that will cause serious damage to the national defense of the United States) to the public, to the parties involved, and to the courts.
(2)
Not later than 90 days after any determination by a court, pursuant to subsection (o), that the public liability from a single nuclear incident may exceed the applicable amount of aggregate public liability under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (e)(1) the President shall submit to the Congress—
(A)
an estimate of the aggregate dollar value of personal injuries and property damage that arises from the nuclear incident and exceeds the amount of aggregate public liability under subsection (e)(1);
(B)
recommendations for additional sources of funds to pay claims exceeding the applicable amount of aggregate public liability under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (e)(1), which recommendations shall consider a broad range of possible sources of funds (including possible revenue measures on the sector of the economy, or on any other class, to which such revenue measures might be applied);
(C)
1 or more compensation plans, that either individually or collectively shall provide for full and prompt compensation for all valid claims and contain a recommendation or recommendations as to the relief to be provided, including any recommendations that funds be allocated or set aside for the payment of claims that may arise as a result of latent injuries that may not be discovered until a later date; and
(D)
any additional legislative authorities necessary to implement such compensation plan or plans.
(3)
(A)
Any compensation plan transmitted to the Congress pursuant to paragraph (2) shall bear an identification number and shall be transmitted to both Houses of Congress on the same day and to each House while it is in session.
(B)
The provisions of paragraphs (4) through (6) shall apply with respect to consideration in the Senate of any compensation plan transmitted to the Senate pursuant to paragraph (2).
(4)
No such compensation plan may be considered approved for purposes of subsection (e)(2) unless between the date of transmittal and the end of the first period of sixty calendar days of continuous session of Congress after the date on which such action is transmitted to the Senate, the Senate passes a resolution described in paragraph 6 2
2
 So in original. Probably should be paragraph “(6)”.
of this subsection.
(5)
For the purpose of paragraph (4) of this subsection—
(A)
continuity of session is broken only by an adjournment of Congress sine die; and
(B)
the days on which either House is not in session because of an adjournment of more than three days to a day certain are excluded in the computation of the sixty-day calendar period.
(6)
(A)
This paragraph is enacted—
(i)
as an exercise of the rulemaking power of the Senate and as such it is deemed a part of the rules of the Senate, but applicable only with respect to the procedure to be followed in the Senate in the case of resolutions described by subparagraph (B) and it supersedes other rules only to the extent that it is inconsistent therewith; and
(ii)
with full recognition of the constitutional right of the Senate to change the rules at any time, in the same manner and to the same extent as in the case of any other rule of the Senate.
(B)
For purposes of this paragraph, the term “resolution” means only a joint resolution of the Congress the matter after the resolving clause  of  which  is  as  follows:  “That  the                  approves the compensation plan numbered            submitted to the Congress on            , 19  .”, the first blank space therein being filled with the name of the resolving House and the other blank spaces being appropriately filled; but does not include a resolution which specifies more than one compensation plan.
(C)
A resolution once introduced with respect to a compensation plan shall immediately be referred to a committee (and all resolutions with respect to the same compensation plan shall be referred to the same committee) by the President of the Senate.
(D)
(i)
If the committee of the Senate to which a resolution with respect to a compensation plan has been referred has not reported it at the end of twenty calendar days after its referral, it shall be in order to move either to discharge the committee from further consideration of such resolution or to discharge the committee from further consideration with respect to such compensation plan which has been referred to the committee.
(ii)
A motion to discharge may be made only by an individual favoring the resolution, shall be highly privileged (except that it may not be made after the committee has reported a resolution with respect to the same compensation plan), and debate thereon shall be limited to not more than one hour, to be divided equally between those favoring and those opposing the resolution. An amendment to the motion shall not be in order, and it shall not be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which the motion was agreed to or disagreed to.
(iii)
If the motion to discharge is agreed to or disagreed to, the motion may not be renewed, nor may another motion to discharge the committee be made with respect to any other resolution with respect to the same compensation plan.
(E)
(i)
When the committee has reported, or has been discharged from further consideration of, a resolution, it shall be at any time thereafter in order (even though a previous motion to the same effect has been disagreed to) to move to proceed to the consideration of the resolution. The motion shall be highly privileged and shall not be debatable. An amendment to the motion shall not be in order, and it shall not be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which the motion was agreed to or disagreed to.
(ii)
Debate on the resolution referred to in clause (i) of this subparagraph shall be limited to not more than ten hours, which shall be divided equally between those favoring and those opposing such resolution. A motion further to limit debate shall not be debatable. An amendment to, or motion to recommit, the resolution shall not be in order, and it shall not be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which such resolution was agreed to or disagreed to.
(F)
(i)
Motions to postpone, made with respect to the discharge from committee, or the consideration of a resolution or motions to proceed to the consideration of other business, shall be decided without debate.
(ii)
Appeals from the decision of the Chair relating to the application of the rules of the Senate to the procedures relating to a resolution shall be decided without debate.
(j)
Contracts in advance of appropriations

In administering the provisions of this section, the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, may make contracts in advance of appropriations and incur obligations without regard to sections 1341, 1342, 1349, 1350, and 1351, and subchapter II of chapter 15, of title 31.

(k)
Exemption from financial protection requirement for nonprofit educational institutions
With respect to any license issued pursuant to section 2073, 2093, 2111, 2134(a), or 2134(c) of this title, for the conduct of educational activities to a person found by the Commission to be a nonprofit educational institution, the Commission shall exempt such licensee from the financial protection requirement of subsection (a). With respect to licenses issued between August 30, 1954, and December 31, 2025, for which the Commission grants such exemption:
(1)
the Commission shall agree to indemnify and hold harmless the licensee and other persons indemnified, as their interests may appear, from public liability in excess of $250,000 arising from nuclear incidents. The aggregate indemnity for all persons indemnified in connection with each nuclear incident shall not exceed $500,000,000, including such legal costs of the licensee as are approved by the Commission;
(2)
such contracts of indemnification shall cover public liability arising out of or in connection with the licensed activity; and shall include damage to property of persons indemnified, except property which is located at the site of and used in connection with the activity where the nuclear incident occurs; and
(3)
such contracts of indemnification, when entered into with a licensee having immunity from public liability because it is a State agency, shall provide also that the Commission shall make payments under the contract on account of activities of the licensee in the same manner and to the same extent as the Commission would be required to do if the licensee were not such a State agency.
Any licensee may waive an exemption to which it is entitled under this subsection. With respect to any production or utilization facility for which a construction permit is issued between August 30, 1954, and December 31, 2025, the requirements of this subsection shall apply to any license issued for such facility subsequent to December 31, 2025.
(l)
Presidential commission on catastrophic nuclear accidents
(1)
Not later than 90 days after August 20, 1988, the President shall establish a commission (in this subsection referred to as the “study commission”) in accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) to study means of fully compensating victims of a catastrophic nuclear accident that exceeds the amount of aggregate public liability under subsection (e)(1).
(2)
(A)
The study commission shall consist of not less than 7 and not more than 11 members, who—
(i)
shall be appointed by the President; and
(ii)
shall be representative of a broad range of views and interests.
(B)
The members of the study commission shall be appointed in a manner that ensures that not more than a mere majority of the members are of the same political party.
(C)
Each member of the study commission shall hold office until the termination of the study commission, but may be removed by the President for inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in office.
(D)
Any vacancy in the study commission shall be filled in the manner in which the original appointment was made.
(E)
The President shall designate one of the members of the study commission as chairperson, to serve at the pleasure of the President.
(3)
The study commission shall conduct a comprehensive study of appropriate means of fully compensating victims of a catastrophic nuclear accident that exceeds the amount of aggregate public liability under subsection (e)(1), and shall submit to the Congress a final report setting forth—
(A)
recommendations for any changes in the laws and rules governing the liability or civil procedures that are necessary for the equitable, prompt, and efficient resolution and payment of all valid damage claims, including the advisability of adjudicating public liability claims through an administrative agency instead of the judicial system;
(B)
recommendations for any standards or procedures that are necessary to establish priorities for the hearing, resolution, and payment of claims when awards are likely to exceed the amount of funds available within a specific time period; and
(C)
recommendations for any special standards or procedures necessary to decide and pay claims for latent injuries caused by the nuclear incident.
(4)
(A)
The chairperson of the study commission may appoint and fix the compensation of a staff of such persons as may be necessary to discharge the responsibilities of the study commission, subject to the applicable provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) and title 5.
(B)
To the extent permitted by law and requested by the chairperson of the study commission, the Administrator of General Services shall provide the study commission with necessary administrative services, facilities, and support on a reimbursable basis.
(C)
The Attorney General, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall, to the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of funds, provide the study commission with such facilities, support, funds and services, including staff, as may be necessary for the effective performance of the functions of the study commission.
(D)
The study commission may request any Executive agency to furnish such information, advice, or assistance as it determines to be necessary to carry out its functions. Each such agency is directed, to the extent permitted by law, to furnish such information, advice or assistance upon request by the chairperson of the study commission.
(E)
Each member of the study commission may receive compensation at the maximum rate prescribed by the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) for each day such member is engaged in the work of the study commission. Each member may also receive travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence under sections 5702 and 5703 of title 5.
(F)
The functions of the President under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) that are applicable to the study commission, except the function of reporting annually to the Congress, shall be performed by the Administrator of General Services.
(5)
The final report required in paragraph (3) shall be submitted to the Congress not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on August 20, 1988.
(6)
The study commission shall terminate upon the expiration of the 2-month period beginning on the date on which the final report required in paragraph (3) is submitted.
(m)
Coordinated procedures for prompt settlement of claims and emergency assistance

The Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, is authorized to enter into agreements with other indemnitors to establish coordinated procedures for the prompt handling, investigation, and settlement of claims for public liability. The Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, and other indemnitors may make payments to, or for the aid of, claimants for the purpose of providing immediate assistance following a nuclear incident. Any funds appropriated to the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, shall be available for such payments. Such payments may be made without securing releases, shall not constitute an admission of the liability of any person indemnified or of any indemnitor, and shall operate as a satisfaction to the extent thereof of any final settlement or judgment.

(n)
Waiver of defenses and judicial procedures
(1)
With respect to any extraordinary nuclear occurrence to which an insurance policy or contract furnished as proof of financial protection or an indemnity agreement applies and which—
(A)
arises out of or results from or occurs in the course of the construction, possession, or operation of a production or utilization facility,
(B)
arises out of or results from or occurs in the course of transportation of source material, byproduct material, or special nuclear material to or from a production or utilization facility,
(C)
during the course of the contract activity arises out of or results from the possession, operation, or use by a Department of Energy contractor or subcontractor of a device utilizing special nuclear material or byproduct material,
(D)
arises out of, results from, or occurs in the course of, the construction, possession, or operation of any facility licensed under section 2073, 2093, or 2111 of this title, for which the Commission has imposed as a condition of the license a requirement that the licensee have and maintain financial protection under subsection (a),
(E)
arises out of, results from, or occurs in the course of, transportation of source material, byproduct material, or special nuclear material to or from any facility licensed under section 2073, 2093, or 2111 of this title, for which the Commission has imposed as a condition of the license a requirement that the licensee have and maintain financial protection under subsection (a), or
(F)
arises out of, results from, or occurs in the course of nuclear waste activities.3
3
 So in original. The period probably should be a comma.
the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, may incorporate provisions in indemnity agreements with licensees and contractors under this section, and may require provisions to be incorporated in insurance policies or contracts furnished as proof of financial protection, which waive (i) any issue or defense as to conduct of the claimant or fault of persons indemnified, (ii) any issue or defense as to charitable or governmental immunity, and (iii) any issue or defense based on any statute of limitations if suit is instituted within three years from the date on which the claimant first knew, or reasonably could have known, of his injury or damage and the cause thereof. The waiver of any such issue or defense shall be effective regardless of whether such issue or defense may otherwise be deemed jurisdictional or relating to an element in the cause of action. When so incorporated, such waivers shall be judicially enforcible in accordance with their terms by the claimant against the person indemnified. Such waivers shall not preclude a defense based upon a failure to take reasonable steps to mitigate damages, nor shall such waivers apply to injury or damage to a claimant or to a claimant’s property which is intentionally sustained by the claimant or which results from a nuclear incident intentionally and wrongfully caused by the claimant. The waivers authorized in this subsection shall, as to indemnitors, be effective only with respect to those obligations set forth in the insurance policies or the contracts furnished as proof of financial protection and in the indemnity agreements. Such waivers shall not apply to, or prejudice the prosecution or defense of, any claim or portion of claim which is not within the protection afforded under (i) the terms of insurance policies or contracts furnished as proof of financial protection, or indemnity agreements, and (ii) the limit of liability provisions of subsection (e).
(2)
With respect to any public liability action arising out of or resulting from a nuclear incident, the United States district court in the district where the nuclear incident takes place, or in the case of a nuclear incident taking place outside the United States, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, shall have original jurisdiction without regard to the citizenship of any party or the amount in controversy. Upon motion of the defendant or of the Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, any such action pending in any State court (including any such action pending on August 20, 1988) or United States district court shall be removed or transferred to the United States district court having venue under this subsection. Process of such district court shall be effective throughout the United States. In any action that is or becomes removable pursuant to this paragraph, a petition for removal shall be filed within the period provided in section 1446 of title 28 or within the 30-day period beginning on August 20, 1988, whichever occurs later.
(3)
(A)
Following any nuclear incident, the chief judge of the United States district court having jurisdiction under paragraph (2) with respect to public liability actions (or the judicial council of the judicial circuit in which the nuclear incident occurs) may appoint a special caseload management panel (in this paragraph referred to as the “management panel”) to coordinate and assign (but not necessarily hear themselves) cases arising out of the nuclear incident, if—
(i)
a court, acting pursuant to subsection (o), determines that the aggregate amount of public liability is likely to exceed the amount of primary financial protection available under subsection (b) (or an equivalent amount in the case of a contractor indemnified under subsection (d)); or
(ii)
the chief judge of the United States district court (or the judicial council of the judicial circuit) determines that cases arising out of the nuclear incident will have an unusual impact on the work of the court.
(B)
(i)
Each management panel shall consist only of members who are United States district judges or circuit judges.
(ii)
Members of a management panel may include any United States district judge or circuit judge of another district court or court of appeals, if the chief judge of such other district court or court of appeals consents to such assignment.
(C)
It shall be the function of each management panel—
(i)
to consolidate related or similar claims for hearing or trial;
(ii)
to establish priorities for the handling of different classes of cases;
(iii)
to assign cases to a particular judge or special master;
(iv)
to appoint special masters to hear particular types of cases, or particular elements or procedural steps of cases;
(v)
to promulgate special rules of court, not inconsistent with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, to expedite cases or allow more equitable consideration of claims;
(vi)
to implement such other measures, consistent with existing law and the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as will encourage the equitable, prompt, and efficient resolution of cases arising out of the nuclear incident; and
(vii)
to assemble and submit to the President such data, available to the court, as may be useful in estimating the aggregate damages from the nuclear incident.
(o)
Plan for distribution of funds
(1)
Whenever the United States district court in the district where a nuclear incident occurs, or the United States District Court for the District of Columbia in case of a nuclear incident occurring outside the United States, determines upon the petition of any indemnitor or other interested person that public liability from a single nuclear incident may exceed the limit of liability under the applicable limit of liability under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (e)(1):
(A)
Total payments made by or for all indemnitors as a result of such nuclear incident shall not exceed 15 per centum of such limit of liability without the prior approval of such court;
(B)
The court shall not authorize payments in excess of 15 per centum of such limit of liability unless the court determines that such payments are or will be in accordance with a plan of distribution which has been approved by the court or such payments are not likely to prejudice the subsequent adoption and implementation by the court of a plan of distribution pursuant to subparagraph (C); and
(C)
The Commission or the Secretary, as appropriate, shall, and any other indemnitor or other interested person may, submit to such district court a plan for the disposition of pending claims and for the distribution of remaining funds available. Such a plan shall include an allocation of appropriate amounts for personal injury claims, property damage claims, and possible latent injury claims which may not be discovered until a later time and shall include establishment of priorities between claimants and classes of claims, as necessary to insure the most equitable allocation of available funds. Such court shall have all power necessary to approve, disapprove, or modify plans proposed, or to adopt another plan; and to determine the proportionate share of funds available for each claimant. The Commission or the Secretary as appropriate, any other indemnitor, and any person indemnified shall be entitled to such orders as may be appropriate to implement and enforce the provisions of this section, including orders limiting the liability of the persons indemnified, orders approving or modifying the plan, orders staying the payment of claims and the execution of court judgments, orders apportioning the payments to be made to claimants, and orders permitting partial payments to be made before final determination of the total claims. The orders of such court shall be effective throughout the United States.
(D)
A court may authorize payment of only such legal costs as are permitted under paragraph (2) from the amount of financial protection required by subsection (b).
(E)
If the sum of public liability claims and legal costs authorized under paragraph (2) arising from any nuclear incident exceeds the maximum amount of financial protection required under subsection (b), any licensee required to pay a standard deferred premium under subsection (b)(1) shall, in addition to such deferred premium, be charged such an amount as is necessary to pay a pro rata share of such claims and costs, but in no case more than 5 percent of the maximum amount of such standard deferred premium described in such subsection.
(2)
A court may authorize the payment of legal costs under paragraph (1)(D) only if the person requesting such payment has—
(A)
submitted to the court the amount of such payment requested; and
(B)
demonstrated to the court—
(i)
that such costs are reasonable and equitable; and
(ii)
that such person has—
(I)
litigated in good faith;
(II)
avoided unnecessary duplication of effort with that of other parties similarly situated;
(III)
not made frivolous claims or defenses; and
(IV)
not attempted to unreasonably delay the prompt settlement or adjudication of such claims.
(p)
Reports to Congress

The Commission and the Secretary shall submit to the Congress by December 31, 2021, detailed reports concerning the need for continuation or modification of the provisions of this section, taking into account the condition of the nuclear industry, availability of private insurance, and the state of knowledge concerning nuclear safety at that time, among other relevant factors, and shall include recommendations as to the repeal or modification of any of the provisions of this section.

(q)
Limitation on awarding of precautionary evacuation costs

No court may award costs of a precautionary evacuation unless such costs constitute a public liability.

(r)
Limitation on liability of lessors

No person under a bona fide lease of any utilization or production facility (or part thereof or undivided interest therein) shall be liable by reason of an interest as lessor of such production or utilization facility, for any legal liability arising out of or resulting from a nuclear incident resulting from such facility, unless such facility is in the actual possession and control of such person at the time of the nuclear incident giving rise to such legal liability.

(s)
Limitation on punitive damages

No court may award punitive damages in any action with respect to a nuclear incident or precautionary evacuation against a person on behalf of whom the United States is obligated to make payments under an agreement of indemnification covering such incident or evacuation.

(t)
Inflation adjustment
(1)
The Commission shall adjust the amount of the maximum total and annual standard deferred premium under subsection (b)(1) not less than once during each 5-year period following August 20, 2003, in accordance with the aggregate percentage change in the Consumer Price Index since—
(A)
August 20, 2003, in the case of the first adjustment under this subsection; or
(B)
the previous adjustment under this subsection.
(2)
The Secretary shall adjust the amount of indemnification provided under an agreement of indemnification under subsection (d) not less than once during each 5-year period following July 1, 2003, in accordance with the aggregate percentage change in the Consumer Price Index since—
(A)
that date, in the case of the first adjustment under this paragraph; or
(B)
the previous adjustment under this paragraph.
(3)
For purposes of this subsection, the term “Consumer Price Index” means the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers published by the Secretary of Labor.
(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, § 170, as added Pub. L. 85–256, § 4, Sept. 2, 1957, 71 Stat. 576; amended Pub. L. 85–602, §§ 2, 2[3], Aug. 8, 1958, 72 Stat. 525; Pub. L. 85–744, Aug. 23, 1958, 72 Stat. 837; Pub. L. 87–206, § 15, Sept. 6, 1961, 75 Stat. 479; Pub. L. 87–615, §§ 6, 7, Aug. 29, 1962, 76 Stat. 410; Pub. L. 88–394, §§ 2, 3, Aug. 1, 1964, 78 Stat. 376; Pub. L. 89–210, §§ 1–5, Sept. 29, 1965, 79 Stat. 855–857; Pub. L. 89–645, §§ 2, 3, Oct. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 94–197, §§ 2–14, Dec. 31, 1975, 89 Stat. 1111–1115; Pub. L. 100–408, §§ 2–4(a), 5(c)–11(a), (c), (d)(1), 12–15, 16(a)(2), (b)(3)–(c), (d)(4)–(e), Aug. 20, 1988, 102 Stat. 1066–1068, 1070–1080; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, § 902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 105–362, title XII, § 1201(b), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3292; Pub. L. 107–314, div. C, title XXXI, § 3171, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2743; Pub. L. 108–7, div. O, § 101, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 551; Pub. L. 108–375, div. C, title XXXI, § 3141, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2171; Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §§ 602–608, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 779–781; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, § 612(c), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1410.)
cite as: 42 USC 2210