U.S Code last checked for updates: May 26, 2024
§ 281.
Organization of National Institutes of Health
(a)
Relation to Public Health Service
(b)
National research institutes and national centers
The following agencies of the National Institutes of Health are national research institutes or national centers:
(1)
The National Cancer Institute.
(2)
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
(3)
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
(4)
The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.
(5)
The National Institute on Aging.
(6)
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
(7)
The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
(8)
The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research.
(9)
The National Eye Institute.
(10)
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
(11)
The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.
(12)
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
(13)
The National Institute on Drug Abuse.
(14)
The National Institute of Mental Health.
(15)
The National Institute of General Medical Sciences.
(16)
The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
(17)
The National Institute of Nursing Research.
(18)
The National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.
(19)
The National Human Genome Research Institute.
(20)
The National Library of Medicine.
(21)
The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences.
(22)
The John E. Fogarty International Center for Advanced Study in the Health Sciences.
(23)
The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health.
(24)
The National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities.
(25)
Any other national center that, as an agency separate from any national research institute, was established within the National Institutes of Health as of the day before January 15, 2007.
(c)
Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives
(1)
In general
(2)
Offices within Division
(A)
Offices
(B)
Authorities
Each office in the Division—
(i)
shall continue to carry out the authorities that were in effect for the office before January 15, 2007; and
(ii)
shall, as determined appropriate by the Director of NIH, support the Division with respect to the authorities described in section 282(b)(7) of this title.
(d)
Organization
(1)
Number of institutes and centers
(2)
Reorganization of institutes
(A)
In general
The Secretary may establish in the National Institutes of Health one or more additional national research institutes to conduct and support research, training, health information, and other programs with respect to any particular disease or groups of diseases or any other aspect of human health if—
(i)
the Secretary determines that an additional institute is necessary to carry out such activities; and
(ii)
the additional institute is not established before the expiration of 180 days after the Secretary has provided the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate written notice of the determination made under clause (i) with respect to the institute.
(B)
Additional authority
(3)
Reorganization of Office of Director
(4)
Internal reorganization of institutes and centers
(e)
Scientific Management Review Board for periodic organizational reviews
(1)
In general
(2)
Duties
(A)
Reports on organizational issues
The Board shall provide advice to the appropriate officials under subsection (d) regarding the use of the authorities established in paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of such subsection to reorganize the National Institutes of Health (referred to in this subsection as “organizational authorities”). Not less frequently than once each 7 years, the Board shall—
(i)
determine whether and to what extent the organizational authorities should be used; and
(ii)
issue a report providing the recommendations of the Board regarding the use of the authorities and the reasons underlying the recommendations.
(B)
Certain responsibilities regarding reports
The activities of the Board with respect to a report under subparagraph (A) shall include the following:
(i)
Reviewing the research portfolio of the National Institutes of Health (referred to in this subsection as “NIH”) in order to determine the progress and effectiveness and value of the portfolio and the allocation among the portfolio activities of the resources of NIH.
(ii)
Determining pending scientific opportunities, and public health needs, with respect to research within the jurisdiction of NIH.
(iii)
For any proposal for organizational changes to which the Board gives significant consideration as a possible recommendation in such report—
(I)
analyzing the budgetary and operational consequences of the proposed changes;
(II)
taking into account historical funding and support for research activities at national research institutes and centers that have been established recently relative to national research institutes and centers that have been in existence for more than two decades;
(III)
estimating the level of resources needed to implement the proposed changes;
(IV)
assuming the proposed changes will be made and making a recommendation for the allocation of the resources of NIH among the national research institutes and national centers; and
(V)
analyzing the consequences for the progress of research in the areas affected by the proposed changes.
(C)
Consultation
In carrying out subparagraph (A), the Board shall consult with—
(i)
the heads of national research institutes and national centers whose directors are not members of the Board;
(ii)
other scientific leaders who are officers or employees of NIH and are not members of the Board;
(iii)
advisory councils of the national research institutes and national centers;
(iv)
organizations representing the scientific community; and
(v)
organizations representing patients.
(3)
Composition of Board
The Board shall consist of the Director of NIH, who shall be a permanent nonvoting member on an ex officio basis, and an odd number of additional members, not to exceed 21, all of whom shall be voting members. The voting members of the Board shall be the following:
(A)
Not fewer than 9 officials who are directors of national research institutes or national centers. The Secretary shall designate such officials for membership and shall ensure that the group of officials so designated includes directors of—
(i)
national research institutes whose budgets are substantial relative to a majority of the other institutes;
(ii)
national research institutes whose budgets are small relative to a majority of the other institutes;
(iii)
national research institutes that have been in existence for a substantial period of time without significant organizational change under subsection (d);
(iv)
as applicable, national research institutes that have undergone significant organization changes under such subsection, or that have been established under such subsection, other than national research institutes for which such changes have been in place for a substantial period of time; and
(v)
national centers.
(B)
Members appointed by the Secretary from among individuals who are not officers or employees of the United States. Such members shall include—
(i)
individuals representing the interests of public or private institutions of higher education that have historically received funds from NIH to conduct research; and
(ii)
individuals representing the interests of private entities that have received funds from NIH to conduct research or that have broad expertise regarding how the National Institutes of Health functions, exclusive of private entities to which clause (i) applies.
(4)
Chair
(5)
Meetings
(A)
In general
(B)
Particular forums
Of the meetings held under subparagraph (A) with respect to a report under paragraph (2)(A)—
(i)
one or more shall be directed toward the scientific community to address scientific needs and opportunities related to proposals for organizational changes under subsection (d), or as the case may be, related to a proposal that no such changes be made; and
(ii)
one or more shall be directed toward consumer organizations to address the needs and opportunities of patients and their families with respect to proposals referred to in clause (i).
(C)
Availability of information from forums
(6)
Compensation; term of office
(7)
Reports
(A)
Recommendations for changes
Each report under paragraph (2)(A) shall be submitted to—
(i)
the Committee on Energy and Commerce and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives;
(ii)
the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate;
(iii)
the Secretary; and
(iv)
officials with organizational authorities, other than any such official who served as a member of the Board with respect to the report involved.
(B)
Availability to public
(C)
Report on Board activities
(f)
Organizational changes per recommendation of Scientific Management Review Board
(1)
In general
With respect to an official who has organizational authorities within the meaning of subsection (e)(2)(A), if a recommendation to the official for an organizational change is made in a report under such subsection, the official shall, except as provided in paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of this subsection, make the change in accordance with the following:
(A)
Not later than 100 days after the report is submitted under subsection (e)(7)(A), the official shall initiate the applicable public process required in subsection (d) toward making the change.
(B)
The change shall be fully implemented not later than the expiration of the 3-year period beginning on the date on which such process is initiated.
(2)
Inapplicability to certain reorganizations
Paragraph (1) does not apply to a recommendation made in a report under subsection (e)(2)(A) if the recommendation is for—
(A)
an organizational change under subsection (d)(2) that constitutes the establishment, termination, or consolidation of one or more national research institutes or national centers; or
(B)
an organizational change under subsection (d)(3).
(3)
Objection by Director of NIH
(A)
In general
(B)
Scope of objection
(4)
Congressional review
(g)
Definitions
For purposes of this subchapter:
(1)
The term “Director of NIH” means the Director of the National Institutes of Health.
(2)
(A)
listed in subsection (b) and not terminated under subsection (d)(2)(A); or
(B)
established by the Director of NIH under such subsection.
(h)
References to NIH
(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, § 401, as added Pub. L. 99–158, § 2, Nov. 20, 1985, 99 Stat. 822; amended Pub. L. 100–553, § 2(1), Oct. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 2769; Pub. L. 100–607, title I, § 101(1), Nov. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 3048; Pub. L. 100–690, title II, § 2613(b)(2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4238; Pub. L. 102–321, title I, § 121(a), July 10, 1992, 106 Stat. 358; Pub. L. 103–43, title XV, §§ 1501(1), 1511(b)(1), 1521(1), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 172, 179, 180; Pub. L. 103–417, § 13(b), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4335; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, § 101(f) [title II, § 212, title VI, § 601(k)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681–359, 2681–388; Pub. L. 106–525, title I, § 101(b)(1), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2501; Pub. L. 106–580, § 3(e), Dec. 29, 2000, 114 Stat. 3091; Pub. L. 109–482, title I, §§ 101(a), (b), 108(a), Jan. 15, 2007, 120 Stat. 3675, 3676, 3697; Pub. L. 110–154, § 1(b)(1), Dec. 21, 2007, 121 Stat. 1827; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, § 10334(c)(3)(A), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 974; Pub. L. 112–74, div. F, title II, § 221(a)(2), (c)(2)(B), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1087, 1089; Pub. L. 113–235, div. G, title II, § 224(1), Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2490.)
cite as: 42 USC 281