U.S Code last checked for updates: May 26, 2024
§ 352.
Misbranded drugs and devices
A drug or device shall be deemed to be misbranded—
(a)
False or misleading label
(1)
If its labeling is false or misleading in any particular. Health care economic information provided to a payor, formulary committee, or other similar entity with knowledge and expertise in the area of health care economic analysis, carrying out its responsibilities for the selection of drugs or devices for coverage or reimbursement, shall not be considered to be false or misleading under this paragraph if the health care economic information relates to an indication approved under section 355, 360(k), 360c(f)(2), or 360e of this title or section 262 of title 42 for such drug or device, is based on competent and reliable scientific evidence, and includes, where applicable, a conspicuous and prominent statement describing any material differences between the health care economic information and the labeling approved for the drug or device under section 355, 360(k), 360c(f)(2), or 360e of this title or section 262 of title 42. The requirements set forth in section 355, 360(k), 360c(f)(2), or 360e of this title or section 262 of title 42 shall not apply to health care economic information provided to such a payor, committee, or entity in accordance with this paragraph. Information that is relevant to the substantiation of the health care economic information presented pursuant to this paragraph shall be made available to the Secretary upon request.
(2)
(A)
For purposes of this paragraph,1
1
 So in original. The term “health care economic information” appears only in par. (1).
the term “health care economic information” means any analysis (including the clinical data, inputs, clinical or other assumptions, methods, results, and other components underlying or comprising the analysis) that identifies, measures, or describes the economic consequences, which may be based on the separa
te or aggregated clinical consequences of the represented health outcomes, of the use of a drug or device. Such analysis may be comparative to the use of another drug or device, to another health care intervention, or to no intervention.
(B)
Such term does not include any analysis that relates only to an indication that is not approved under section 355, 360(k), 360c(f)(2), or 360e of this title or section 262 of title 42 for such drug or device.
(b)
Package form; contents of label
(c)
Prominence of information on label
(d)
Repealed. Pub. L. 105–115, title I, § 126(b), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2327
(e)
Designation of drugs or devices by established names
(1)
(A)
If it is a drug, unless its label bears, to the exclusion of any other nonproprietary name (except the applicable systematic chemical name or the chemical formula)—
(i)
the established name (as defined in subparagraph (3)) of the drug, if there is such a name;
(ii)
the established name and quantity or, if determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, the proportion of each active ingredient, including the quantity, kind, and proportion of any alcohol, and also including whether active or not the established name and quantity or if determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, the proportion of any bromides, ether, chloroform, acetanilide, acetophenetidin, amidopyrine, antipyrine, atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine, arsenic, digitalis, digitalis glucosides, mercury, ouabain, strophanthin, strychnine, thyroid, or any derivative or preparation of any such substances, contained therein, except that the requirement for stating the quantity of the active ingredients, other than the quantity of those specifically named in this subclause, shall not apply to nonprescription drugs not intended for human use; and
(iii)
the established name of each inactive ingredient listed in alphabetical order on the outside container of the retail package and, if determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, on the immediate container, as prescribed in regulation promulgated by the Secretary, except that nothing in this subclause shall be deemed to require that any trade secret be divulged, and except that the requirements of this subclause with respect to alphabetical order shall apply only to nonprescription drugs that are not also cosmetics and that this subclause shall not apply to nonprescription drugs not intended for human use.
(B)
For any prescription drug the established name of such drug or ingredient, as the case may be, on such label (and on any labeling on which a name for such drug or ingredient is used) shall be printed prominently and in type at least half as large as that used thereon for any proprietary name or designation for such drug or ingredient, except that to the extent that compliance with the requirements of subclause (ii) or (iii) of clause (A) or this clause is impracticable, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.
(2)
If it is a device and it has an established name, unless its label bears, to the exclusion of any other nonproprietary name, its established name (as defined in subparagraph (4)) prominently printed in type at least half as large as that used thereon for any proprietary name or designation for such device, except that to the extent compliance with the requirements of this subparagraph is impracticable, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.
(3)
As used in subparagraph (1), the term “established name”, with respect to a drug or ingredient thereof, means (A) the applicable official name designated pursuant to section 358 of this title, or (B), if there is no such name and such drug, or such ingredient, is an article recognized in an official compendium, then the official title thereof in such compendium, or (C) if neither clause (A) nor clause (B) of this subparagraph applies, then the common or usual name, if any, of such drug or of such ingredient, except that where clause (B) of this subparagraph applies to an article recognized in the United States Pharmacopeia and in the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia under different official titles, the official title used in the United States Pharmacopeia shall apply unless it is labeled and offered for sale as a homoeopathic drug, in which case the official title used in the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia shall apply.
(4)
As used in subparagraph (2), the term “established name” with respect to a device means (A) the applicable official name of the device designated pursuant to section 358 of this title, (B) if there is no such name and such device is an article recognized in an official compendium, then the official title thereof in such compendium, or (C) if neither clause (A) nor clause (B) of this subparagraph applies, then any common or usual name of such device.
(f)
Directions for use and warnings on label
(g)
Representations as recognized drug; packing and labeling; inconsistent requirements for designation of drug
(h)
Deteriorative drugs; packing and labeling
(i)
Drug; misleading container; imitation; offer for sale under another name
(1)
If it is a drug and its container is so made, formed, or filled as to be misleading; or (2) if it is an imitation of another drug; or (3) if it is offered for sale under the name of another drug.
(j)
Health-endangering when used as prescribed
(k)
, (l) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–115, title I, § 125(a)(2)(B), (b)(2)(D), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2325
(m)
Color additives; packing and labeling
(n)
Prescription drug advertisements: established name; quantitative formula; side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness; prior approval; false advertising; labeling; construction of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances
(o)
Drugs or devices from nonregistered establishments
(p)
Packaging or labeling of drugs in violation of regulations
(q)
Restricted devices using false or misleading advertising or used in violation of regulations
(r)
Restricted devices not carrying requisite accompanying statements in advertisements and other descriptive printed matter
(s)
Devices subject to performance standards not bearing requisite labeling
(t)
Devices for which there has been a failure or refusal to give required notification or to furnish required material or information
(u)
Identification of manufacturer
(1)
Subject to paragraph (2), if it is a reprocessed single-use device, unless it, or an attachment thereto, prominently and conspicuously bears the name of the manufacturer of the reprocessed device, a generally recognized abbreviation of such name, or a unique and generally recognized symbol identifying such manufacturer.
(2)
If the original device or an attachment thereto does not prominently and conspicuously bear the name of the manufacturer of the original device, a generally recognized abbreviation of such name, or a unique and generally recognized symbol identifying such manufacturer, a reprocessed device may satisfy the requirements of paragraph (1) through the use of a detachable label on the packaging that identifies the manufacturer and is intended to be affixed to the medical record of a patient.
(v)
Reprocessed single-use devices
(w)
New animal drugs
If it is a new animal drug—
(1)
that is conditionally approved under section 360ccc of this title and its labeling does not conform with the approved application or section 360ccc(f) of this title, or that is not conditionally approved under section 360ccc of this title and its label bears the statement set forth in section 360ccc(f)(1)(A) of this title;
(2)
that is indexed under section 360ccc–1 of this title and its labeling does not conform with the index listing under section 360ccc–1(e) of this title or 360ccc–1(h) of this title, or that has not been indexed under section 360ccc–1 of this title and its label bears the statement set forth in section 360ccc–1(h) of this title; or
(3)
for which an application has been approved under section 360b of this title and the labeling of such drug does not include the application number in the format: “Approved by FDA under (A)NADA # xxx–xxx”, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to representative labeling required under section 514.1(b)(3)(v)(b) of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulation) for animal feed bearing or containing a new animal drug.
(x)
Nonprescription drugs
(y)
Drugs subject to approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy
(z)
Postmarket studies and clinical trials; new safety information in labeling
(aa)
Unpaid fees; failure to submit identifying information
(bb)
False or misleading advertisement or promotion of compounded drug
(cc)
Failure to bear product identifier
(dd)
Improper labeling of antimicrobial drugs
(ee)
Nonprescription drug subject to regulation
(ff)
Drugs manufactured, prepared, propagated, compounded, or processed in facilities for which fees have not been paid
(gg)
Product information prior to approval
(1)
Unless its labeling bears adequate directions for use in accordance with paragraph (f), except that (in addition to drugs or devices that conform with exemptions pursuant to such paragraph) no drug or device shall be deemed to be misbranded under such paragraph through the provision of truthful and not misleading product information to a payor, formulary committee, or other similar entity with knowledge and expertise in the area of health care economic analysis carrying out its responsibilities for the selection of drugs or devices for coverage or reimbursement if the product information relates to an investigational drug or device or investigational use of a drug or device that is approved, cleared, granted marketing authorization, or licensed under section 355, 360(k), 360c(f)(2), or 360e of this title or section 262 of title 42 (as applicable), provided—
(A)
the product information includes—
(i)
a clear statement that the investigational drug or device or investigational use of a drug or device has not been approved, cleared, granted marketing authorization, or licensed under section 355, 360(k), 360c(f)(2), or 360e of this title or section 262 of title 42 (as applicable) and that the safety and effectiveness of such drug or device for such use has not been established;
(ii)
information related to the stage of development of the drug or device involved, such as—
(I)
the status of any study or studies in which the investigational drug or device or investigational use is being investigated;
(II)
how the study or studies relate to the overall plan for the development of the drug or device; and
(III)
whether an application, premarket notification, or request for classification for the investigational drug or device or investigational use has been submitted to the Secretary and when such a submission is planned;
(iii)
in the case of information that includes factual presentations of results from studies, which shall not be selectively presented, a description of—
(I)
all material aspects of study design, methodology, and results; and
(II)
all material limitations related to the study design, methodology, and results;
(iv)
where applicable, a prominent statement disclosing the indication or indications for which the Secretary has approved, granted marketing authorization, cleared, or licensed the product pursuant to section 355, 360(k), 360c(f)(2), or 360e of this title or section 262 of title 42, and a copy of the most current required labeling; and
(v)
updated information, if previously communicated information becomes materially outdated as a result of significant changes or as a result of new information regarding the product or its review status; and
(B)
the product information does not include—
(i)
information that represents that an unapproved product—
(I)
has been approved, cleared, granted marketing authorization, or licensed under section 355, 360(k), 360c(f)(2), or 360e of this title or section 262 of title 42 (as applicable); or
(II)
has otherwise been determined to be safe or effective for the purpose or purposes for which the drug or device is being studied; or
(ii)
information that represents that an unapproved use of a drug or device that has been so approved, granted marketing authorization, cleared, or licensed—
(I)
is so approved, granted marketing authorization, cleared, or licensed; or
(II)
that the product is safe or effective for the use or uses for which the drug or device is being studied.
(2)
For purposes of this paragraph, the term “product information” includes—
(A)
information describing the drug or device (such as drug class, device description, and features);
(B)
information about the indication or indications being investigated;
(C)
the anticipated timeline for a possible approval, clearance, marketing authorization, or licensure pursuant to section 355, 360(k), 360c, or 360e of this title or section 262 of title 42;
(D)
drug or device pricing information;
(E)
patient utilization projections;
(F)
product-related programs or services; and
(G)
factual presentations of results from studies that do not characterize or make conclusions regarding safety or efficacy.
(June 25, 1938, ch. 675, § 502, 52 Stat. 1050; June 23, 1939, ch. 242, § 3, 53 Stat. 854; Dec. 22, 1941, ch. 613, § 2, 55 Stat. 851; July 6, 1945, ch. 281, § 2, 59 Stat. 463; Mar. 10, 1947, ch. 16, § 2, 61 Stat. 11; July 13, 1949, ch. 305, § 1, 63 Stat. 409; Aug. 5, 1953, ch. 334, § 1, 67 Stat. 389; Pub. L. 86–618, title I, § 102(b)(2), July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 398; Pub. L. 87–781, title I, §§ 105(c), 112(a), (b), 131(a), title III, § 305, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 785, 790, 791, 795; Pub. L. 90–399, § 105(a), July 13, 1968, 82 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 91–601, § 6(d), formerly § 7(d), Dec. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1673, renumbered Pub. L. 97–35, title XII, § 1205(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 716; Pub. L. 94–295, §§ 3(e), 4(b)(2), 5(a), 9(b)(2), May 28, 1976, 90 Stat. 577, 580, 583; Pub. L. 95–633, title I, § 111, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3773; Pub. L. 102–300, § 3(a)(2), June 16, 1992, 106 Stat. 239; Pub. L. 102–571, title I, § 107(9), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4499; Pub. L. 103–80, § 3(m), Aug. 13, 1993, 107 Stat. 777; Pub. L. 105–115, title I, §§ 114(a), 125(a)(2)(B), (b)(2)(D), 126(b), title IV, § 412(c), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2312, 2325, 2327, 2375; Pub. L. 107–250, title II, § 206, title III, §§ 301(a), 302(a)(1), Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1613, 1616; Pub. L. 108–214, § 2(b)(2)(B), Apr. 1, 2004, 118 Stat. 575; Pub. L. 108–282, title I, § 102(b)(5)(E), Aug. 2, 2004, 118 Stat. 902; Pub. L. 109–43, § 2(c)(1), Aug. 1, 2005, 119 Stat. 441; Pub. L. 109–462, § 2(d), Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3472; Pub. L. 110–85, title IX, §§ 901(d)(3)(A), (6), 902(a), 906(a), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 940, 942, 943, 949; Pub. L. 112–144, title III, § 306, title VII, §§ 702(a), 714(c), July 9, 2012, 126 Stat. 1024, 1065, 1074; Pub. L. 112–193, § 2(a), Oct. 5, 2012, 126 Stat. 1443; Pub. L. 113–54, title I, § 103(b), title II, § 206(b), Nov. 27, 2013, 127 Stat. 597, 639; Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title III, §§ 3037, 3044(b)(2), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1105, 1121; Pub. L. 115–234, title III, § 303(a), Aug. 14, 2018, 132 Stat. 2436; Pub. L. 116–136, div. A, title III, § 3852, Mar. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 454; Pub. L. 117–328, div. FF, title III, § 3630(a), Dec. 29, 2022, 136 Stat. 5893.)
cite as: 21 USC 352