U.S Code last checked for updates: Oct 26, 2021
§ 2112.
Barriers to and other distortions of trade
(a)
Congressional findings; directives; disavowal of prior approval of legislation

The Congress finds that barriers to (and other distortions of) international trade are reducing the growth of foreign markets for the products of United States agriculture, industry, mining, and commerce, diminishing the intended mutual benefits of reciprocal trade concessions, adversely affecting the United States economy, preventing fair and equitable access to supplies, and preventing the development of open and nondiscriminatory trade among nations. The President is urged to take all appropriate and feasible steps within his power (including the full exercise of the rights of the United States under international agreements) to harmonize, reduce, or eliminate such barriers to (and other distortions of) international trade. The President is further urged to utilize the authority granted by subsection (b) to negotiate trade agreements with other countries and instrumentalities providing on a basis of mutuality for the harmonization, reduction, or elimination of such barriers to (and other distortions of) international trade. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as prior approval of any legislation which may be necessary to implement an agreement concerning barriers to (or other distortions of) international trade.

(b)
Presidential determinations prerequisite to entry into trade agreements; trade with Israel
(1)
Whenever the President determines that any barriers to (or other distortions of) international trade of any foreign country or the United States unduly burden and restrict the foreign trade of the United States or adversely affect the United States economy, or that the imposition of such barriers is likely to result in such a burden, restriction, or effect, and that the purposes of this chapter will be promoted thereby, the President, during the 13-year period beginning on January 3, 1975, may enter into trade agreements with foreign countries or instrumentalities providing for the harmonization, reduction, or elimination of such barriers (or other distortions) or providing for the prohibition of or limitations on the imposition of such barriers (or other distortions).
(2)
(A)
Trade agreements that provide for the elimination or reduction of any duty imposed by the United States may be entered into under paragraph (1) only with Israel.
(B)
The negotiation of any trade agreement entered into under paragraph (1) with Israel that provides for the elimination or reduction of any duty imposed by the United States shall take fully into account any product that benefits from a discriminatory preferential tariff arrangement between Israel and a third country if the tariff preference on such product has been the subject of a challenge by the United States Government under the authority of section 2411 of this title and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
(C)
Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the requirements of subsections (c) and (e)(1) shall not apply to any trade agreement entered into under paragraph (1) with Israel that provides for the elimination or reduction of any duty imposed by the United States.
(3)
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no trade benefit shall be extended to any country by reason of the extension of any trade benefit to another country under a trade agreement entered into under paragraph (1) with such other country that provides for the elimination or reduction of any duty imposed by the United States.
(4)
(A)
Notwithstanding paragraph (2), a trade agreement that provides for the elimination or reduction of any duty imposed by the United States may be entered into under paragraph (1) with any country other than Israel if—
(i)
such country requested the negotiation of such an agreement, and
(ii)
the President, at least 60 days prior to the date notice is provided under subsection (e)(1)—
(I)
provides written notice of such negotiations to the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, and
(II)
consults with such committees regarding the negotiation of such agreement.
(B)
The provisions of section 2191 of this title shall not apply to an implementing bill (within the meaning of section 2191(b) of this title) if—
(i)
such implementing bill contains a provision approving of any trade agreement which—
(I)
is entered into under this section with any country other than Israel, and
(II)
provides for the elimination or reduction of any duty imposed by the United States, and
(ii)
either—
(I)
the requirements of subparagraph (A) were not met with respect to the negotiation of such agreement, or
(II)
the Committee on Finance of the Senate or the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives disapproved of the negotiation of such agreement before the close of the 60-day period which begins on the date notice is provided under subparagraph (A)(ii)(I) with respect to the negotiation of such agreement.
(C)
The 60-day period described in subparagraphs (A)(ii) and (B)(ii)(II) shall be computed without regard to—
(i)
the days on which either House of Congress is not in session because of an adjournment of more than 3 days to a day certain or an adjournment of the Congress sine die, and
(ii)
any Saturday and Sunday, not excluded under clause (i), when either House of Congress is not in session.
(c)
Presidential consultation with Congress prior to entry into trade agreements

Before the President enters into any trade agreement under this section providing for the harmonization, reduction, or elimination of a barrier to (or other distortion of) international trade, he shall consult with the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Finance of the Senate, and with each committee of the House and the Senate and each joint committee of the Congress which has jurisdiction over legislation involving subject matters which would be affected by such trade agreement. Such consultation shall include all matters relating to the implementation of such trade agreement as provided in subsections (d) and (e). If it is proposed to implement such trade agreement, together with one or more other trade agreements entered into under this section, in a single implementing bill, such consultation shall include the desirability and feasibility of such proposed implementation.

(d)
Submission to Congress of agreements, drafts of implementing bills, and statements of proposed administrative action

Whenever the President enters into a trade agreement under this section providing for the harmonization, reduction, or elimination of a barrier to (or other distortion of) international trade, he shall submit such agreement, together with a draft of an implementing bill (described in section 2191(b) of this title) and a statement of any administrative action proposed to implement such agreement, to the Congress as provided in subsection (e), and such agreement shall enter into force with respect to the United States only if the provisions of subsection (e) are complied with and the implementing bill submitted by the President is enacted into law.

(e)
Steps prerequisite to entry into force of trade agreements
Each trade agreement submitted to the Congress under this subsection shall enter into force with respect to the United States if (and only if)—
(1)
the President, not less than 90 days before the day on which he enters into such trade agreement, notifies the House of Representatives and the Senate of his intention to enter into such an agreement, and promptly thereafter publishes notice of such intention in the Federal Register;
(2)
after entering into the agreement, the President transmits a document to the House of Representatives and to the Senate containing a copy of the final legal text of such agreement together with—
(A)
a draft of an implementing bill and a statement of any administrative action proposed to implement such agreement, and an explanation as to how the implementing bill and proposed administrative action change or affect existing law, and
(B)
a statement of his reasons as to how the agreement serves the interests of United States commerce and as to why the implementing bill and proposed administrative action is required or appropriate to carry out the agreement; and
(3)
the implementing bill is enacted into law.
(f)
Obligations imposed upon foreign countries or instrumentalities receiving benefits under trade agreements

To insure that a foreign country or instrumentality which receives benefits under a trade agreement entered into under this section is subject to the obligations imposed by such agreement, the President may recommend to Congress in the implementing bill and statement of administrative action submitted with respect to such agreement that the benefits and obligations of such agreement apply solely to the parties to such agreement, if such application is consistent with the terms of such agreement. The President may also recommend with respect to any such agreement that the benefits and obligations of such agreement not apply uniformly to all parties to such agreement, if such application is consistent with the terms of such agreement.

(g)
Definitions
For purposes of this section—
(1)
the term “barrier” includes—
(A)
the American selling price basis of customs evaluation as defined in section 1401a or 1402 of this title, as appropriate, and
(B)
any duty or other import restriction;
(2)
the term “distortion” includes a subsidy; and
(3)
the term “international trade” includes—
(A)
trade in both goods and services, and
(B)
foreign direct investment by United States persons, especially if such investment has implications for trade in goods and services.
(Pub. L. 93–618, title I, § 102, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1982; Pub. L. 96–39, title XI, §§ 1101, 1106(c)(1), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 307, 311; Pub. L. 98–573, title III, § 307(a), title IV, § 401(a)–(c)(1), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3012, 3013–3015; Pub. L. 99–47, § 8(b)(1), June 11, 1985, 99 Stat. 84; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, § 1887(a)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2923.)
cite as: 19 USC 2112