Regulations last checked for updates: Dec 08, 2019

Title 29 - Labor last revised: Dec 01, 2019
§ 38.4 - Definitions.

For the purpose of this part:

(a) Administrative Law Judge means a person appointed as provided in 5 U.S.C. 3105 and 5 CFR 930.203, and qualified under 5 U.S.C. 557,to.

(b) Aid, benefit, service, or training means WIOA Title I-financially assisted services, financial or other aid, training, or benefits provided by or through a recipient or its employees, or by others through contract or other arrangements with the recipient. “Aid, benefit, service, or training” includes, but is not limited to:

(1) Career Services;

(2) Education or training;

(3) Health, welfare, housing, social service, rehabilitation, or other supportive services;

(4) Work opportunities;

(5) Cash, loans, or other financial assistance to individuals; and

(6) Any aid, benefits, services, or training provided in or through a facility that has been constructed, expanded, altered, leased, rented, or otherwise obtained, in whole or in part, with Federal financial assistance under Title I of WIOA.

(c) Applicant means an individual who is interested in being considered for any WIOA Title I-financially assisted aid, benefit, service, or training by a recipient, and who has signified that interest by submitting personal information in response to a request by the recipient. See also the definitions of “application for benefits,” “eligible applicant/registrant,” “participant,” “participation,” and “recipient” in this section.

(d) Applicant for employment means a person or persons who make(s) an application for employment with a recipient of Federal financial assistance under WIOA Title I.

(e) Application for benefits means the process by which information, including but not limited to a completed application form, is provided by applicants or eligible applicants before and as a condition of receiving any WIOA Title I-financially assisted aid, benefit, service, or training from a recipient.

(f) Assistant Attorney General means the Assistant Attorney General, Civil Rights Division, United States Department of Justice.

(g) Assistant Secretary means the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management, United States Department of Labor.

(h) Auxiliary aids or services includes:

(1) Qualified interpreters on-site or through video remote interpreting (VRI) services; notetakers; real-time computer-aided transcription services; written materials; exchange of written notes; telephone handset amplifiers; assistive listening devices; assistive listening systems; telephones compatible with hearing aids; closed caption decoders; open and closed captioning, including real-time captioning; voice, text, and video-based telecommunications products and systems, including text telephones (TTYs), videophones, and captioned telephones, or equally effective telecommunications devices; videotext displays; accessible electronic and information technology; or other effective means of making aurally delivered materials available to individuals with hearing impairments;

(2) Qualified readers; taped texts; audio recordings; Brailled materials and displays; screen reader software; magnification software; optical readers; secondary auditory programs (SAP); large print materials; accessible electronic and information technology; or other effective methods of making visually delivered materials available to individuals who are blind or have low vision;

(3) Acquisition or modification of equipment or devices; and

(4) Other similar services, devices, and actions.

(i) Babel notice means a short notice included in a document or electronic medium (e.g., Web site, “app,” email) in multiple languages informing the reader that the communication contains vital information, and explaining how to access language services to have the contents of the communication provided in other languages.

(j) Beneficiary means the individual or individuals intended by Congress to receive aid, benefits, services, or training from a recipient.

(k) Citizenship See “Discrimination prohibited based on citizenship status.” in § 38.11.

(l) CRC means the Civil Rights Center, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management, U.S. Department of Labor.

(m) Department means the U.S. Department of Labor, including its agencies and organizational units.

(n) Departmental grantmaking agency means a grantmaking agency within the U.S. Department of Labor.

(o) Director means the Director, Civil Rights Center, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management, U.S. Department of Labor, or a designee authorized to act for the Director.

(p) Direct threat means a significant risk of substantial harm to the health or safety of others that cannot be eliminated or reduced by auxiliary aids and services, reasonable accommodations, or reasonable modifications in policies, practices and/or procedures. The determination whether an individual with a disability poses a direct threat must be based on an individualized assessment of the individual's present ability safely to either:

(1) Satisfy the essential eligibility requirements of the program or activity (in the case of aid, benefits, services, or training); or

(2) Perform the essential functions of the job (in the case of employment). This assessment must be based on a reasonable medical judgment that relies on the most current medical knowledge and/or on the best available objective evidence. In determining whether an individual would pose a direct threat, the factors to be considered include:

(i) The duration of the risk;

(ii) The nature and severity of the potential harm;

(iii) The likelihood that the potential harm will occur; and

(iv) The imminence of the potential harm.

(q) Disability - (1) General. “Disability” means, with respect to an individual:

(i) A physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual;

(ii) A record of such an impairment; or

(iii) Being regarded as having such an impairment as described in paragraph (q)(7) of this section.

(2) Rules of construction. (i) The definition of “disability” shall be construed broadly in favor of expansive coverage, to the maximum extent permitted by Federal disability nondiscrimination law and this part.

(ii) An individual may establish coverage under any one or more of the three prongs of the general definition of disability in paragraph (q)(1) of this section, the “actual disability” prong in paragraph (q)(1)(i) of this section, the “record of” prong in paragraph (q)(1)(ii) of this section, or the “regarded as” prong in paragraph (q)(1)(iii) of this section.

(iii) Where an individual is not challenging a recipient's failure to provide reasonable accommodations or reasonable modifications under § 38.14(a) or (b), it is generally unnecessary to proceed under the “actual disability” or “record of” prongs, which require a showing of an impairment that substantially limits a major life activity or a record of such an impairment. In these cases, the evaluation of coverage can be made solely under the “regarded as” prong of the definition of “disability,” which does not require a showing of an impairment that substantially limits a major life activity or a record of such an impairment. An individual may choose, however, to proceed under the “actual disability” or “record of” prong regardless of whether the individual is challenging a recipient's failure to provide reasonable accommodations, or reasonable modifications.

(3) Physical or mental impairment. (i) “Physical or mental impairment” means -

(A) Any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss affecting one or more body systems, such as: Neurological, musculoskeletal, special sense organs, respiratory (including speech organs), cardiovascular, reproductive, digestive, genitourinary, immune, circulatory, hemic, lymphatic, skin, and endocrine; or

(B) Any mental or psychological disorder such as intellectual disability, organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness, and specific learning disabilities.

(ii) “Physical or mental impairment” includes, but is not limited to, contagious and noncontagious diseases and conditions such as the following: Orthopedic, visual, speech and hearing impairments, and cerebral palsy, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, intellectual disability, emotional illness, pregnancy-related medical conditions, dyslexia and other specific learning disabilities, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection (whether symptomatic or asymptomatic), tuberculosis, drug addiction, and alcoholism.

(iii) “Physical or mental impairment” does not include homosexuality or bisexuality.

(4) Major life activities. (i) Major life activities include, but are not limited to:

(A) Caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, seeing, hearing, eating, sleeping, walking, standing, sitting, reaching, lifting, bending, speaking, breathing, learning, reading, concentrating, thinking, writing, communicating, interacting with others, and working; and

(B) The operation of a “major bodily function,” such as the functions of the immune system, special sense organs and skin, normal cell growth, and digestive, genitourinary, bowel, bladder, neurological, brain, respiratory, circulatory, cardiovascular, endocrine, hemic, lymphatic, musculoskeletal, and reproductive systems. The operation of a major bodily function includes the operation of an individual organ within a body system.

(ii) Rules of construction. (A) In determining whether an impairment substantially limits a major life activity, the term “major” shall not be interpreted strictly to create a demanding standard.

(B) Whether an activity is a “major life activity” is not determined by reference to whether it is of central importance to daily life.

(5) Substantially limits - (i) Rules of construction. The following rules of construction apply when determining whether an impairment substantially limits an individual in a major life activity.

(A) The term “substantially limits” shall be construed broadly in favor of expansive coverage, to the maximum extent permitted by Federal disability nondiscrimination law and this part. “Substantially limits” is not meant to be a demanding standard.

(B) The primary object of attention in disability cases brought under WIOA Section 188 should be whether recipients have complied with their obligations and whether discrimination has occurred, not the extent to which an individual's impairment substantially limits a major life activity. Accordingly, the threshold issue of whether an impairment substantially limits a major life activity should not demand extensive analysis.

(C) An impairment that substantially limits one major life activity does not need to limit other major life activities in order to be considered a substantially limiting impairment.

(D) An impairment that is episodic or in remission is a disability if it would substantially limit a major life activity when active.

(E) An impairment is a disability within the meaning of this section if it substantially limits the ability of an individual to perform a major life activity as compared to most people in the general population. An impairment does not need to prevent, or significantly or severely restrict, the individual from performing a major life activity in order to be considered substantially limiting. Nonetheless, not every impairment will constitute a disability within the meaning of this section.

(F) The determination of whether an impairment substantially limits a major life activity requires an individualized assessment. However, in making this assessment, the term “substantially limits” shall be interpreted and applied to require a degree of functional limitation that is lower than the standard for “substantially limits” applied prior to the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA).

(G) The comparison of an individual's performance of a major life activity to the performance of the same major life activity by most people in the general population usually will not require scientific, medical, or statistical evidence. Nothing in this paragraph (q)(5)(i)(G) is intended, however, to prohibit or limit the presentation of scientific, medical, or statistical evidence in making such a comparison where appropriate.

(H) The determination of whether an impairment substantially limits a major life activity shall be made without regard to the ameliorative effects of mitigating measures. However, the ameliorative effects of ordinary eyeglasses or contact lenses shall be considered in determining whether an impairment substantially limits a major life activity. Ordinary eyeglasses or contact lenses are lenses that are intended to fully correct visual acuity or to eliminate refractive error.

(I) The six-month “transitory” part of the “transitory and minor” exception in paragraph (q)(7)(ii) of this section does not apply to the “actual disability” or “record of” prongs of the definition of “disability.” The effects of an impairment lasting or expected to last less than six months can be substantially limiting within the meaning of this paragraph (q)(5)(i) for establishing an actual disability or a record of a disability.

(ii) Predictable assessments. (A) The principles set forth in paragraph (q)(5)(i) of this section are intended to provide for more generous coverage and application of the prohibition on discrimination through a framework that is predictable, consistent, and workable for all individuals and recipients with rights and responsibilities with respect to avoiding discrimination on the basis of disability.

(B) Applying these principles, the individualized assessment of some types of impairments will, in virtually all cases, result in a determination of coverage under paragraph (q)(1)(i) of this section (the “actual disability” prong) or paragraph (q)(1)(ii) (the “record of” prong). Given their inherent nature, these types of impairments will, as a factual matter, virtually always be found to impose a substantial limitation on a major life activity. Therefore, with respect to these types of impairments, the necessary individualized assessment should be particularly simple and straightforward.

(C) For example, applying these principles, it should easily be concluded that the types of impairments set forth in paragraphs (q)(5)(ii)(C)(1) through (11) of this section will, at a minimum, substantially limit the major life activities indicated. The types of impairments described in paragraphs (q)(5)(ii)(C)(1) through (11) may substantially limit additional major life activities (including major bodily functions) not explicitly listed in paragraphs (q)(5)(ii)(C)(1) through (11).

(1) Deafness substantially limits hearing;

(2) Blindness substantially limits seeing;

(3) Intellectual disability substantially limits brain function;

(4) Partially or completely missing limbs or mobility impairments requiring the use of a wheelchair substantially limit musculoskeletal function;

(5) Autism substantially limits brain function;

(6) Cancer substantially limits normal cell growth;

(7) Cerebral palsy substantially limits brain function;

(8) Diabetes substantially limits endocrine function;

(9) Epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, and multiple sclerosis each substantially limits neurological function;

(10) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection substantially limits immune function; and

(11) Major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, obsessive compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia each substantially limits brain function.

(iii) Condition, manner, or duration. (A) At all times taking into account the principles in paragraph (q)(5)(i) of this section, in determining whether an individual is substantially limited in a major life activity, it may be useful in appropriate cases to consider, as compared to most people in the general population, the conditions under which the individual performs the major life activity; the manner in which the individual performs the major life activity; or the duration of time it takes the individual to perform the major life activity, or for which the individual can perform the major life activity.

(B) Consideration of facts such as condition, manner or duration may include, among other things, consideration of the difficulty, effort or time required to perform a major life activity; pain experienced when performing a major life activity; the length of time a major life activity can be performed; or the way an impairment affects the operation of a major bodily function. In addition, the non-ameliorative effects of mitigating measures, such as negative side effects of medication or burdens associated with following a particular treatment regimen, may be considered when determining whether an individual's impairment substantially limits a major life activity.

(C) In determining whether an individual has a disability under the “actual disability” or “record of” prongs of the definition of “disability,” the focus is on how a major life activity is substantially limited, and not on what outcomes an individual can achieve. For example, someone with a learning disability may achieve a high level of academic success, but may nevertheless be substantially limited in one or more major life activities, including, but not limited to, reading, writing, speaking, or learning, because of the additional time or effort the individual must spend to read, write, speak, or learn compared to most people in the general population.

(D) Given the rules of construction set forth in paragraph (q)(5)(i) of this section, it may often be unnecessary to conduct an analysis involving most or all of the facts related to condition, manner, or duration. This is particularly true with respect to impairments such as those described in paragraph (q)(5)(ii)(C) of this section, which by their inherent nature should be easily found to impose a substantial limitation on a major life activity, and for which the individualized assessment should be particularly simple and straightforward.

(iv) Mitigating measures include, but are not limited to:

(A) Medication, medical supplies, equipment, appliances, low-vision devices (defined as devices that magnify, enhance, or otherwise augment a visual image, but not including ordinary eyeglasses or contact lenses), prosthetics including limbs and devices, hearing aid(s) and cochlear implant(s) or other implantable hearing devices, mobility devices, and oxygen therapy equipment and supplies;

(B) Use of assistive technology;

(C) Reasonable modifications of policies, practices, and procedures, or auxiliary aids or services;

(D) Learned behavioral or adaptive neurological modifications; or

(E) Psychotherapy, behavioral therapy, or physical therapy.

(6) Has a record of such an impairment. (i) An individual has a record of such an impairment if the individual has a history of, or has been misclassified as having, a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.

(ii) Broad construction. Whether an individual has a record of an impairment that substantially limited a major life activity shall be construed broadly to the maximum extent permitted by Federal disability nondiscrimination law and this part and should not demand extensive analysis. An individual will be considered to fall within this prong of the definition of “disability” if the individual has a history of an impairment that substantially limited one or more major life activities when compared to most people in the general population, or was misclassified as having had such an impairment. In determining whether an impairment substantially limited a major life activity, the principles articulated in paragraph (q)(5)(i) of this section apply.

(iii) Reasonable accommodation or reasonable modification. An individual with a record of a substantially limiting impairment may be entitled to a reasonable accommodation or reasonable modification if needed and related to the past disability.

(7) Is regarded as having such an impairment. The following principles apply under the “regarded as” prong of the definition of “disability” (paragraph (q)(1)(iii) of this section):

(i) Except as set forth in paragraph (q)(7)(ii) of this section, an individual is “regarded as having such an impairment” if the individual is subjected to an action prohibited by WIOA Section 188 and this part because of an actual or perceived physical or mental impairment, whether or not that impairment substantially limits, or is perceived to substantially limit, a major life activity, even if the recipient asserts, or may or does ultimately establish, a defense to the action prohibited by WIOA Section 188 and this part.

(ii) An individual is not “regarded as having such an impairment” if the recipient demonstrates that the impairment is, objectively, both “transitory” and “minor.” A recipient may not defeat “regarded as” coverage of an individual simply by demonstrating that it subjectively believed the impairment was transitory and minor; rather, the recipient must demonstrate that the impairment is (in the case of an actual impairment) or would be (in the case of a perceived impairment), objectively, both “transitory” and “minor.” For purposes of this section, “transitory” is defined as lasting or expected to last six months or less.

(iii) Establishing that an individual is “regarded as having such an impairment” does not, by itself, establish liability. Liability is established only when an individual proves that a recipient discriminated on the basis of disability within the meaning of federal nondiscrimination law and this part.

(r) Eligible applicant/registrant means an individual who has been determined eligible to participate in one or more WIOA Title I-financially assisted programs or activities.

(s) Employment practices of a recipient include, but are not limited to:

(1) Recruitment or recruitment advertising;

(2) Selection, placement, layoff or termination of employees;

(3) Upgrading, promotion, demotion or transfer of employees;

(4) Training, including employment-related training;

(5) Participation in upward mobility programs;

(6) Deciding rates of pay or other forms of compensation;

(7) Use of facilities; or

(8) Deciding other terms, conditions, benefits, and/or privileges of employment.

(t) Employment-related training means training that allows or enables an individual to obtain skills, abilities and/or knowledge that are designed to lead to employment.

(u) Entity means any person, corporation, partnership, joint venture, sole proprietorship, unincorporated association, consortium, Native American tribe or tribal organization, Native Hawaiian organization, and/or entity authorized by State or local law; any State or local government; and/or any agency, instrumentality or subdivision of such a government.

(v) Facility means all or any portion of buildings, structures, sites, complexes, equipment, roads, walks, passageways, parking lots, rolling stock or other conveyances, or other real or personal property or interest in such property, including the site where the building, property, structure, or equipment is located. The phrase “real or personal property” in the preceding sentence includes indoor constructs that may or may not be permanently attached to a building or structure. Such constructs include, but are not limited to, office cubicles, computer kiosks, and similar constructs.

(w) Federal grantmaking agency means a Federal agency that provides financial assistance under any Federal statute.

(x) Financial assistance means any of the following:

(1) Any grant, subgrant, loan, or advance of funds, including funds extended to any entity for payment to or on behalf of participants admitted to that recipient for training, or extended directly to such participants for payment to that recipient;

(2) Provision of the services of grantmaking agency personnel, or of other personnel at the grantmaking agency's expense;

(3) A grant or donation of real or personal property or any interest in or use of such property, including:

(i) Transfers or leases of property for less than fair market value or for reduced consideration;

(ii) Proceeds from a subsequent sale, transfer, or lease of such property, if the grantmaking agency's share of the fair market value of the property is not returned to the grantmaking agency; and

(iii) The sale, lease, or license of, and/or the permission to use (other than on a casual or transient basis), such property or any interest in such property, either:

(A) Without consideration;

(B) At a nominal consideration; or

(C) At a consideration that is reduced or waived either for the purpose of assisting the recipient, or in recognition of the public interest to be served by such sale or lease to or use by the recipient;

(4) Waiver of charges that would normally be made for the furnishing of services by the grantmaking agency; and

(5) Any other agreement, arrangement, contract or subcontract (other than a procurement contract or a contract of insurance or guaranty), or other instrument that has as one of its purposes the provision of assistance or benefits under the statute or policy that authorizes assistance by the grantmaking agency.

(y) Financial assistance under Title I of WIOA means any of the following, when authorized or extended under WIOA Title I:

(1) Any grant, subgrant, loan, or advance of federal funds, including funds extended to any entity for payment to or on behalf of participants admitted to that recipient for training, or extended directly to such participants for payment to that recipient;

(2) Provision of the services of Federal personnel, or of other personnel at Federal expense;

(3) A grant or donation of Federal real or personal property or any interest in or use of such property, including:

(i) Transfers or leases of property for less than fair market value or for reduced consideration;

(ii) Proceeds from a subsequent sale, transfer, or lease of such property, if the Federal share of the fair market value of the property is not returned to the Federal Government; and

(iii) The sale, lease, or license of, and/or the permission to use (other than on a casual or transient basis), such property or any interest in such property, either:

(A) Without consideration;

(B) At a nominal consideration; or

(C) At a consideration that is reduced or waived either for the purpose of assisting the recipient, or in recognition of the public interest to be served by such sale or lease to or use by the recipient;

(4) Waiver of charges that would normally be made for the furnishing of Government services; and

(5) Any other agreement, arrangement, contract or subcontract (other than a Federal procurement contract or a contract of insurance or guaranty), or other instrument that has as one of its purposes the provision of assistance or benefits under WIOA Title I.

(z) Fundamental alteration means:

(1) A change in the essential nature of a program or activity as defined in this part, including but not limited to an aid, service, benefit, or training; or

(2) A cost that a recipient can demonstrate would result in an undue burden. Factors to be considered in making the determination whether the cost of a modification would result in such a burden include:

(i) The nature and net cost of the modification needed, taking into consideration the availability of tax credits and deductions, and/or outside financial assistance, for the modification;

(ii) The overall financial resources of the facility or facilities involved in the provision of the modification, including:

(A) The number of persons aided, benefited, served, or trained by, or employed at, the facility or facilities; and

(B) The effect the modification would have on the expenses and resources of the facility or facilities;

(iii) The overall financial resources of the recipient, including:

(A) The overall size of the recipient;

(B) The number of persons aided, benefited, served, trained, or employed by the recipient; and

(C) The number, type and location of the recipient's facilities;

(iv) The type of operation or operations of the recipient, including:

(A) The geographic separateness and administrative or fiscal relationship of the facility or facilities in question to the recipient; and

(B) Where the modification sought is employment-related, the composition, structure and functions of the recipient's workforce; and

(v) The impact of the modification upon the operation of the facility or facilities, including:

(A) The impact on the ability of other participants to receive aid, benefit, service, or training, or of other employees to perform their duties; and

(B) The impact on the facility's ability to carry out its mission.

(aa) Governor means the chief executive of a State or an outlying area, or the Governor's designee.

(bb) Grant applicant means an entity that submits required documentation to the Governor, recipient, or Department, before and as a condition of receiving financial assistance under Title I of WIOA.

(cc) Grantmaking agency means an entity that provides Federal financial assistance.

(dd) Guideline means written informational material supplementing an agency's regulations and provided to grant applicants and recipients to provide program-specific interpretations of their responsibilities under the regulations.

(ee) Illegal use of drugs means the use of drugs, the possession or distribution of which is unlawful under the Controlled Substances Act, as amended (21 U.S.C. 812). “Illegal use of drugs” does not include the use of a drug taken under supervision of a licensed health care professional, or other uses authorized by the Controlled Substances Act or other provisions of Federal law.

(ff) Individual with a disability means a person who has a disability as previously defined in this section.

(1) The term “individual with a disability” does not include an individual on the basis of:

(i) Transvestism, transsexualism, or gender identity disorders not resulting from physical impairments;

(ii) Pedophilia, exhibitionism, voyeurism, or other sexual behavior disorders;

(iii) Compulsive gambling, kleptomania, or pyromania; or

(iv) Psychoactive substance use disorders resulting from current illegal use of drugs.

(2) The term “individual with a disability” does not include an individual who is currently engaging in the illegal use of drugs, when a recipient acts on the basis of such use. This limitation does not exclude as an individual with a disability an individual who:

(i) Has successfully completed a supervised drug rehabilitation program and is no longer engaging in the illegal use of drugs, or has otherwise been rehabilitated successfully and is no longer engaging in the illegal use of drugs;

(ii) Is participating in a supervised rehabilitation program and is no longer engaging in such use; or

(iii) Is erroneously regarded as engaging in such use, but is not engaging in such use, except that it is not a violation of the nondiscrimination and equal opportunity provisions of WIOA or this part for a recipient to adopt or administer reasonable policies or procedures, including but not limited to drug testing, designed to ensure that an individual described in paragraph (ff)(2)(i) or (ii) of this section is no longer engaging in the illegal use of drugs.

(3) With regard to employment, the term “individual with a disability” does not include any individual who:

(i) Is an alcoholic if:

(A) The individual's current use of alcohol prevents such individual from performing the duties of the job in question; or

(B) The individual's employment, by reason of such current alcohol abuse, would constitute a direct threat to the individual or the safety of others; or

(ii) Has a currently contagious disease or infection, if:

(A) That disease or infection prevents the individual from performing the essential functions of the job in question; or

(B) The individual's employment, because of that disease or infection, would constitute a direct threat to the health or safety of the individual or others.

(gg) Labor market area means an economically integrated geographic area within which individuals can reside and find employment within a reasonable distance or can readily change employment without changing their place of residence. Such an area must be identified in accordance with either criteria used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor in defining such areas, or similar criteria established by a Governor.

(hh) Limited English proficient (LEP) individual means an individual whose primary language for communication is not English and who has a limited ability to read, speak, write, and/or understand English. LEP individuals may be competent in English for certain types of communication (e.g., speaking or understanding), but still be LEP for other purposes (e.g., reading or writing).

(ii) LWDA (Local Workforce Development Area) grant recipient means the entity that receives WIOA Title I financial assistance for a local area directly from the Governor and disburses those funds for workforce development activities.

(jj) National Programs means:

(1) Job Corps; and

(2) Programs receiving Federal financial assistance under Title I, Subtitle D of WIOA directly from the Department. Such programs include, but are not limited to, the Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers Programs, Native American Programs, National Dislocated Worker Grant Programs, and YouthBuild programs.

(kk) Noncompliance means a failure of a grant applicant or recipient to comply with any of the applicable requirements of the nondiscrimination and equal opportunity provisions of WIOA and this part.

(ll) Nondiscrimination Plan means the written document and supporting documentation developed under § 38.54.

(mm) On-the-Job Training (OJT) means training by an employer that is provided to a paid participant while the participant is engaged in productive work that:

(1) Provides knowledge or skills essential to the full and adequate performance of the job;

(2) Provides reimbursement to the employer of up to 50 percent of the wage rate of the participant (or up to 75 percent as provided in WIOA section 134(c)(3)(H)), for the extraordinary costs of providing the training and additional supervision related to the training; and

(3) Is limited in duration as appropriate to the occupation for which the participant is being trained, taking into account the content of the training, the prior work experience of the participant, and the service strategy of the participant, as appropriate.

(nn) Other power-driven mobility device means any mobility device powered by batteries, fuel, or other engines or by similar means - whether or not designed primarily for use by individuals with mobility disabilities - that is used by individuals with mobility disabilities for the purpose of locomotion, including golf cars, electronic personal assistance mobility devices (EPAMDs), such as the Segway® PT, or any mobility device designed to operate in areas without defined pedestrian routes, but that is not a wheelchair within the meaning of this section.

(oo) Participant means an individual who has been determined to be eligible to participate in, and who is receiving any aid, benefit, service, or training under, a program or activity financially assisted in whole or in part under Title I of WIOA. “Participant” includes, but is not limited to, individuals receiving any service(s) under State Employment Service programs, and claimants receiving any service(s) or benefits under State Unemployment Insurance programs.

(pp) Participation is considered to commence on the first day, following determination of eligibility, on which the participant began receiving subsidized aid, benefit, service, or training provided under Title I of WIOA.

(qq) Parties to a hearing means the Department and the grant applicant(s), recipient(s), or Governor.

(rr) Population eligible to be served means the total population of adults and eligible youth who reside within the labor market area that is served by a particular recipient, and who are eligible to seek WIOA Title I-financially assisted aid, benefits, services, or training from that recipient. See the definition of “labor market area” in this section.

(ss) Program or activity, see “WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity” in this section.

(tt) Programmatic accessibility means policies, practices, and procedures providing effective and meaningful opportunity for persons with disabilities to participate in or benefit from aid, benefits, services, and training.

(uu) Prohibited basis means any basis upon which it is illegal to discriminate under the nondiscrimination and equal opportunity provisions of WIOA or this part, i.e., race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, or political affiliation or belief, or, for beneficiaries, applicants, and participants only, citizenship status or participation in a WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity.

(vv) Public entity means:

(1) Any State or local government; and

(2) Any department, agency, special purpose district, workforce development board, or other instrumentality of a State or States or local government.

(ww) Qualified individual with a disability means:

(1) With respect to employment, an individual who satisfies the requisite skill, experience, education, and other job-related requirements of the employment position such individual holds or desires, and who, with or without reasonable accommodation, can perform the essential functions of such position;

(2) With respect to aid, benefits, services, or training, an individual who, with or without auxiliary aids and services, reasonable accommodations, and/or reasonable modifications in policies, practices and procedures, meets the essential eligibility requirements for the receipt of such aid, benefits, services, or training.

(xx) Qualified interpreter means an interpreter who is able to interpret effectively, accurately, and impartially, either for individuals with disabilities or for individuals who are limited English proficient. The interpreter must be able to interpret both receptively and expressively, using any necessary specialized vocabulary, either in-person, through a telephone, a video remote interpreting (VRI) service, or via internet, video, or other technological methods.

(1) Qualified interpreter for an individual with a disability includes, for example, a sign language interpreter, oral transliterator, and cued-language transliterator. When an interpreter is provided to a person with a disability, the qualified interpreter must be able to sign or otherwise communicate effectively, accurately, and impartially, both receptively and expressively, using any necessary specialized vocabulary.

(2) Qualified interpreter for an individual who is limited English proficient means an individual who demonstrates expertise and ability to communicate information effectively, accurately, and impartially, in both English and the other language, and identifies and employs the appropriate mode of interpreting (e.g., consecutive, simultaneous, or sight translation).

(yy) Reasonable accommodation. (1) The term “reasonable accommodation” means:

(i) Modifications or adjustments to an application/registration process that enables a qualified applicant/registrant with a disability to be considered for the aid, benefits, services, training, or employment that the qualified applicant/registrant desires; or

(ii) Modifications or adjustments that enable a qualified individual with a disability to perform the essential functions of a job, or to receive aid, benefits, services, or training equal to that provided to qualified individuals without disabilities. These modifications or adjustments may be made to:

(A) The environment where work is performed or aid, benefits, services, or training are given; or

(B) The customary manner in which, or circumstances under which, a job is performed or aid, benefits, services, or training are given; or

(iii) Modifications or adjustments that enable a qualified individual with a disability to enjoy the same benefits and privileges of the aid, benefits, services, training, or employment as are enjoyed by other similarly situated individuals without disabilities.

(2) “Reasonable accommodation” includes, but is not limited to:

(i) Making existing facilities used by applicants, registrants, eligible applicants/registrants, participants, applicants for employment, and employees readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities; and

(ii) Restructuring of a job or a service, or of the way in which aid, benefits, services, or training is/are provided; part-time or modified work or training schedules; acquisition or modification of equipment or devices; appropriate adjustment or modifications of examinations, training materials, or policies; the provision of readers or interpreters; and other similar accommodations for individuals with disabilities.

(3) To determine the appropriate reasonable accommodation, it may be necessary for the recipient to initiate an informal, interactive process with the qualified individual with a disability in need of the accommodation. This process should identify the precise limitations resulting from the disability and potential reasonable accommodations that could overcome those limitations.

(4) A recipient is required, absent undue hardship, to provide a reasonable accommodation to an otherwise qualified individual who meets the definition of disability under the “actual disability” prong (paragraph (q)(1)(i) of this section) or the “record of” a disability prong (paragraph (q)(1)(ii) of this section), but is not required to provide a reasonable accommodation to an individual who meets the definition of disability solely under the “regarded as” prong (paragraph (q)(1)(iii) of this section).

(zz) Recipient means entity to which financial assistance under Title I of WIOA is extended, directly from the Department or through the Governor or another recipient (including any successor, assignee, or transferee of a recipient). The term excludes any ultimate beneficiary of the WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity. In instances in which a Governor operates a program or activity, either directly or through a State agency, using discretionary funds apportioned to the Governor under WIOA Title I (rather than disbursing the funds to another recipient), the Governor is also a recipient. In addition, for purposes of this part, one-stop partners, as defined in section 121(b) of WIOA, are treated as “recipients,” and are subject to the nondiscrimination and equal opportunity requirements of this part, to the extent that they participate in the one-stop delivery system. “Recipient” includes, but is not limited to:

(1) State-level agencies that administer, or are financed in whole or in part with, WIOA Title I funds;

(2) State Workforce Agencies;

(3) State and Local Workforce Development Boards;

(4) LWDA grant recipients;

(5) One-stop operators;

(6) Service providers, including eligible training providers;

(7) On-the-Job Training (OJT) employers;

(8) Job Corps contractors and center operators;

(9) Job Corps national training contractors;

(10) Outreach and admissions agencies, including Job Corps contractors that perform these functions;

(11) Placement agencies, including Job Corps contractors that perform these functions;

(12) Other National Program recipients.

(aaa) Registrant means the same as “applicant” for purposes of this part. See also the definitions of “application for benefits,” “eligible applicant/registrant,” “participant,” “participation,” and “recipient” in this section.

(bbb) Respondent means a grant applicant or recipient (including a Governor) against which a complaint has been filed under the nondiscrimination and equal opportunity provisions of WIOA or this part.

(ccc) Secretary means the Secretary of Labor, U.S. Department of Labor, or the Secretary's designee.

(ddd) Sectarian activities means religious worship or ceremony, or sectarian instruction.

(eee) Section 504 means Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. 794,as,which.

(fff) Service animal means any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability. Other species of animals, whether wild or domestic, trained or untrained, are not service animals for the purposes of this definition. The work or tasks performed by a service animal must be directly related to the individual's disability. Examples of work or tasks include, but are not limited to, assisting individuals who are blind or have low vision with navigation and other tasks, alerting individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing to the presence of people or sounds, providing non-violent protection or rescue work, pulling a wheelchair, assisting an individual during a seizure, alerting individuals to the presence of allergens, retrieving items such as medicine or the telephone, providing physical support and assistance with balance and stability to individuals with mobility disabilities, and helping persons with psychiatric and neurological disabilities by preventing or interrupting impulsive or destructive behaviors. The crime deterrent effects of an animal's presence and the provision of emotional support, well-being, comfort, or companionship, without more, do not constitute work or tasks for the purposes of this definition.

(ggg) Service provider means:

(1) Any operator of, or provider of aid, benefits, services, or training to:

(i) Any program or activity that receives WIOA Title I financial assistance from or through any State or LWDA grant recipient; or

(ii) Any participant through that participant's Individual Training Account (ITA); or

(2) Any entity that is selected and/or certified as an eligible provider of training services to participants.

(hhh) Small recipient means a recipient who:

(1) Serves a total of fewer than 15 beneficiaries during the entire grant year; and

(2) Employs fewer than 15 employees on any given day during the grant year.

(iii) Solicitor means the Solicitor of Labor, U.S. Department of Labor, or the Solicitor's designee.

(jjj) State means the individual states of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, Wake Island, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and Palau.

(kkk) State Programs means programs financially assisted in whole or in part under Title I of WIOA in which either:

(1) The Governor and/or State receives and disburses the grant to or through LWDA grant recipients; or

(2) The Governor retains the grant funds and operates the programs, either directly or through a State agency.

(3) “State Programs” also includes State Workforce Agencies, State Employment Service agencies, and/or State unemployment compensation agencies.

(lll) State Workforce Agency (SWA) means the State agency that, under the State Administrator, contains both State agencies with responsibility for administering programs authorized under the Wagner-Peyser Act, and unemployment insurance programs authorized under Title III of the Social Security Act.

(mmm) Supportive services means services, such as transportation, child care, dependent care, housing, and needs-related payments, that are necessary to enable an individual to participate in WIOA Title I-financially assisted programs and activities, as consistent with the provisions of WIOA Title I.

(nnn) Terminee means a participant whose participation in the program or employee whose employment with the program ends voluntarily or involuntarily, during the applicable program year.

(ooo) Title VI means Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d, et seq., as amended, which forbids recipients of federal financial assistance from discriminating on the basis of race, color, or national origin.

(ppp) Transferee means a person or entity to whom or to which real or personal property, or an interest in such property, is transferred.

(qqq) Ultimate beneficiary, see the definition of “beneficiary” in this section.

(rrr) Undue burden or undue hardship has different meanings, depending upon whether it is used with regard to reasonable accommodation of individuals with disabilities, or with regard to religious accommodation.

(1) Reasonable accommodation of individuals with disabilities. (i) In general, “undue hardship” means significant difficulty or expense incurred by a recipient, when considered in light of the factors set forth in paragraph (rrr)(1)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Factors to be considered in determining whether an accommodation would impose an undue hardship on a recipient include:

(A) The nature and net cost of the accommodation needed, taking into consideration the availability of tax credits and deductions, and/or outside funding, for the accommodation;

(B) The overall financial resources of the facility or facilities involved in the provision of the reasonable accommodation, including:

(1) The number of persons aided, benefited, served, or trained by, or employed at, the facility or facilities; and

(2) The effect the accommodation would have on the expenses and resources of the facility or facilities;

(C) The overall financial resources of the recipient, including:

(1) The overall size of the recipient;

(2) The number of persons aided, benefited, served, trained, or employed by the recipient; and

(3) The number, type and location of the recipient's facilities;

(D) The type of operation or operations of the recipient, including:

(1) The geographic separateness and administrative or fiscal relationship of the facility or facilities in question to the recipient; and

(2) Where the individual is seeking an employment-related accommodation, the composition, structure and functions of the recipient's workforce; and

(E) The impact of the accommodation upon the operation of the facility or facilities, including:

(1) The impact on the ability of other participants to receive aid, benefits, services, or training, or of other employees to perform their duties; and

(2) The impact on the facility's ability to carry out its mission.

(2) Religious accommodation. For purposes of religious accommodation only, “undue hardship” means anything more than a de minimis cost or operational burden that a particular accommodation would impose upon a recipient.

(sss) Video remote interpreting (VRI) service means an interpreting service that uses video conference technology over dedicated lines or wireless technology offering high-speed, wide-bandwidth video connection that delivers high-quality video images, as provided in § 38.15.

(ttt) Vital information means information, whether written, oral or electronic, that is necessary for an individual to understand how to obtain any aid, benefit, service, and/or training; necessary for an individual to obtain any aid, benefit, service, and/or training; or required by law. Examples of documents containing vital information include, but are not limited to applications, consent and complaint forms; notices of rights and responsibilities; notices advising LEP individuals of their rights under this part, including the availability of free language assistance; rulebooks; written tests that do not assess English language competency, but rather assess competency for a particular license, job, or skill for which English proficiency is not required; and letters or notices that require a response from the beneficiary or applicant, participant, or employee.

(uuu) Wheelchair means a manually-operated or power-driven device designed primarily for use by an individual with a mobility disability for the main purpose of indoor and/or outdoor locomotion.

(vvv) WIOA means the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act.

(www) WIOA Title I financial assistance, see the definition of “Financial assistance under WIOA” in this section.

(xxx) WIOA Title I-financially assisted program or activity means:

(1) A program or activity, operated by a recipient and financially assisted, in whole or in part, under Title I of WIOA that provides either:

(i) Any aid, benefit, service, or training to individuals; or

(ii) Facilities for furnishing any aid, benefits, services, or training to individuals;

(2) Aid, benefit, service, or training provided in facilities that are being or were constructed with the aid of Federal financial assistance under WIOA Title I; or

(3) Aid, benefit, service, or training provided with the aid of any non-WIOA Title I financial assistance, property, or other resources that are required to be expended or made available in order for the program to meet matching requirements or other conditions which must be met in order to receive the WIOA Title I financial assistance. See the definition of “aid, benefit, service, or training” in this section.

authority: 29 U.S.C. 3101
source: 81 FR 87211, Dec. 2, 2016, unless otherwise noted.
cite as: 29 CFR 38.4