U.S Code last checked for updates: May 27, 2024
§ 453B.
Gain or loss on disposition of installment obligations
General rule
If an installment obligation is satisfied at other than its face value or distributed, transmitted, sold, or otherwise disposed of, gain or loss shall result to the extent of the difference between the basis of the obligation and—
the amount realized, in the case of satisfaction at other than face value or a sale or exchange, or
the fair market value of the obligation at the time of distribution, transmission, or disposition, in the case of the distribution, transmission, or disposition otherwise than by sale or exchange.
any gain or loss so resulting shall be considered as resulting from the sale or exchange of the property in respect of which the installment obligation was received.
Basis of obligation
Special rule for transmission at death
Exception for distributions to which section 337(a) applies
Life insurance companies
In general
Special rule where life insurance company elects to treat income as not related to insurance business
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any transfer or deemed transfer of an installment obligation if the life insurance company elects (at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe) to determine its life insurance company taxable income—
by returning the income on such installment obligation under the installment method prescribed in section 453, and
as if such income were an item attributable to a noninsurance business.
Noninsurance business
In general
Certain activities treated as insurance businesses
For purposes of subparagraph (A), any activity which is not an insurance business shall be treated as an insurance business if—
it is of a type traditionally carried on by life insurance companies for investment purposes, but only if the carrying on of such activity (other than in the case of real estate) does not constitute the active conduct of a trade or business, or
it involves the performance of administrative services in connection with plans providing life insurance, pension, or accident and health benefits.
Obligation becomes unenforceable
For purposes of this section, if any installment obligation is canceled or otherwise becomes unenforceable—
the obligation shall be treated as if it were disposed of in a transaction other than a sale or exchange, and
if the obligor and obligee are related persons (within the meaning of section 453(f)(1)), the fair market value of the obligation shall be treated as not less than its face amount.
Transfers between spouses or incident to divorce
In the case of any transfer described in subsection (a) of section 1041 (other than a transfer in trust)—
subsection (a) of this section shall not apply, and
the same tax treatment with respect to the transferred installment obligation shall apply to the transferee as would have applied to the transferor.
Certain liquidating distributions by S corporations
an installment obligation is distributed by an S corporation in a complete liquidation, and
receipt of the obligation is not treated as payment for the stock by reason of section 453(h)(1),
then, except for purposes of any tax imposed by subchapter S, no gain or loss with respect to the distribution of the obligation shall be recognized by the distributing corporation. Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the character of the gain or loss to the shareholder shall be determined in accordance with the principles of section 1366(b).
(Added Pub. L. 96–471, § 2(a), Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2252; amended Pub. L. 96–471, § 2(c)(3), Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2254; Pub. L. 97–448, title III, § 302, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2398; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, § 43(c)(2), title II, § 211(b)(6), title IV, §§ 421(b)(3), 492(b)(3), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 558, 754, 794, 854; Pub. L. 99–514, title VI, § 631(e)(9), title X, § 1011(b)(1), title XVIII, § 1842(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2274, 2389, 2853; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, § 1006(e)(22), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3403; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, § 11702(a)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–514; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, § 13512(b)(1), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2142; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, § 401(a)(111), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1189.)
cite as: 26 USC 453B