U.S Code last checked for updates: Jun 23, 2024
§ 2798.
Sanctions against certain foreign persons
(a)
Imposition of sanctions
(1)
Determination by the President
Except as provided in subsection (b)(2), the President shall impose both of the sanctions described in subsection (c) if the President determines that a foreign person, on or after October 28, 1991, has knowingly and materially contributed—
(A)
through the export from the United States of any goods or technology that are subject to the jurisdiction of the United States,
(B)
through the export from any other country of any goods or technology that would be, if they were United States goods or technology, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, or
(C)
through any other transaction not subject to sanctions pursuant to the Export Administration Act of 1979,1
1
 See References in Text note below.
to the efforts by any foreign country, project, or entity described in paragraph (2) to use, develop, produce, stockpile, or otherwise acquire chemical or biological weapons.
(2)
Countries, projects, or entities receiving assistance
Paragraph (1) applies in the case of—
(A)
any foreign country that the President determines has, at any time after January 1, 1980
(i)
used chemical or biological weapons in violation of international law;
(ii)
used lethal chemical or biological weapons against its own nationals; or
(iii)
made substantial preparations to engage in the activities described in clause (i) or (ii);
(B)
any foreign country whose government is determined for purposes of section 6(j) 1 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 to be a government that has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism; or
(C)
any other foreign country, project, or entity designated by the President for purposes of this section.
(3)
Persons against whom sanctions are to be imposed
Sanctions shall be imposed pursuant to paragraph (1) on—
(A)
the foreign person with respect to which the President makes the determination described in that paragraph;
(B)
any successor entity to that foreign person;
(C)
any foreign person that is a parent or subsidiary of that foreign person if that parent or subsidiary knowingly assisted in the activities which were the basis of that determination; and
(D)
any foreign person that is an affiliate of that foreign person if that affiliate knowingly assisted in the activities which were the basis of that determination and if that affiliate is controlled in fact by that foreign person.
(b)
Consultations with and actions by foreign government of jurisdiction
(1)
Consultations
(2)
Actions by government of jurisdiction
(3)
Report to Congress
(c)
Sanctions
(1)
Description of sanctions
The sanctions to be imposed pursuant to subsection (a)(1) are, except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, the following:
(A)
Procurement sanction
(B)
Import sanctions
(2)
Exceptions
The President shall not be required to apply or maintain sanctions under this section—
(A)
in the case of procurement of defense articles or defense services—
(i)
under existing contracts or subcontracts, including the exercise of options for production quantities to satisfy United States operational military requirements;
(ii)
if the President determines that the person or other entity to which the sanctions would otherwise be applied is a sole source supplier of the defense articles or services, that the defense articles or services are essential, and that alternative sources are not readily or reasonably available; or
(iii)
if the President determines that such articles or services are essential to the national security under defense coproduction agreements;
(B)
to products or services provided under contracts entered into before the date on which the President publishes his intention to impose sanctions;
(C)
to—
(i)
spare parts,
(ii)
component parts, but not finished products, essential to United States products or production, or
(iii)
routine servicing and maintenance of products, to the extent that alternative sources are not readily or reasonably available;
(D)
to information and technology essential to United States products or production; or
(E)
to medical or other humanitarian items.
(d)
Termination of sanctions
(e)
Waiver
(1)
Criterion for waiver
(2)
Notification of and report to Congress
(f)
“Foreign person” defined
For the purposes of this section, the term “foreign person” means—
(1)
an individual who is not a citizen of the United States or an alien admitted for permanent residence to the United States; or
(2)
a corporation, partnership, or other entity which is created or organized under the laws of a foreign country or which has its principal place of business outside the United States.
(Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 8, § 81, as added and amended Pub. L. 102–182, title III, §§ 305(b), 309(b)(2), Dec. 4, 1991, 105 Stat. 1250, 1258.)
cite as: 22 USC 2798