U.S Code last checked for updates: May 26, 2024
§ 263b.
Certification of mammography facilities
(a)
Definitions
As used in this section:
(1)
Accreditation body
(2)
Certificate
(3)
Facility
(A)
In general
(B)
Activities
(4)
Inspection
(5)
Mammogram
(6)
Mammography
(7)
Survey
(8)
Review physician
(b)
Certificate requirement
(1)
Certificate
No facility may conduct an examination or procedure described in paragraph (2) involving mammography after October 1, 1994, unless the facility obtains—
(A)
a certificate or a temporary renewal certificate—
(i)
that is issued, and, if applicable, renewed, by the Secretary in accordance with paragraphs 1
1
 So in original. Probably should be “paragraph”.
(1) or (2) of subsection (c);
(ii)
that is applicable to the examination or procedure to be conducted; and
(iii)
that is displayed prominently in such facility; or
(B)
a provisional certificate or a limited provisional certificate—
(i)
that is issued by the Secretary in accordance with paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (c);
(ii)
that is applicable to the examination or procedure to be conducted; and
(iii)
that is displayed prominently in such facility.
The reference to a certificate in this section includes a temporary renewal certificate, provisional certificate, or a limited provisional certificate.
(2)
Examination or procedure
A facility shall obtain a certificate in order to—
(A)
operate radiological equipment that is used to image the breast;
(B)
provide for the interpretation of a mammogram produced by such equipment at the facility or under arrangements with a qualified individual at a facility different from where the mammography examination is performed; and
(C)
provide for the processing of film produced by such equipment at the facility or under arrangements with a qualified individual at a facility different from where the mammography examination is performed.
(c)
Issuance and renewal of certificates
(1)
In general
(2)
Temporary renewal certificate
The Secretary may issue a temporary renewal certificate, for a period of not to exceed 45 days, to a facility seeking reaccreditation if the accreditation body has issued an accreditation extension, for a period of not to exceed 45 days, for any of the following:
(A)
The facility has submitted the required materials to the accreditation body within the established time frames for the submission of such materials but the accreditation body is unable to complete the reaccreditation process before the certification expires.
(B)
The facility has acquired additional or replacement equipment, or has had significant personnel changes or other unforeseen situations that have caused the facility to be unable to meet reaccreditation timeframes, but in the opinion of the accreditation body have not compromised the quality of mammography.
(3)
Limited provisional certificate
(4)
Provisional certificate
(d)
Application for certificate
(1)
Submission
The Secretary may issue or renew a certificate for a facility if—
(A)
the person who owns or leases the facility or an authorized agent of the person, submits to the Secretary, in such form and manner as the Secretary shall prescribe, an application that contains at a minimum—
(i)
a description of the manufacturer, model, and type of each x-ray machine, image receptor, and processor operated in the performance of mammography by the facility;
(ii)
a description of the procedures currently used to provide mammography at the facility, including—
(I)
the types of procedures performed and the number of such procedures performed in the prior 12 months;
(II)
the methodologies for mammography; and
(III)
the names and qualifications (educational background, training, and experience) of the personnel performing mammography and the physicians reading and interpreting the results from the procedures;
(iii)
proof of on-site survey by a qualified medical physicist as described in subsection (f)(1)(E); and
(iv)
proof of accreditation in such manner as the Secretary shall prescribe; and
(B)
the person or agent submits to the Secretary—
(i)
a satisfactory assurance that the facility will be operated in accordance with standards established by the Secretary under subsection (f) to assure the safety and accuracy of mammography;
(ii)
a satisfactory assurance that the facility will—
(I)
permit inspections under subsection (g);
(II)
make such records and information available, and submit such reports, to the Secretary as the Secretary may require; and
(III)
update the information submitted under subparagraph (A) or assurances submitted under this subparagraph on a timely basis as required by the Secretary; and
(iii)
such other information as the Secretary may require.
An applicant shall not be required to provide in an application under subparagraph (A) any information which the applicant has supplied to the accreditation body which accredited the applicant, except as required by the Secretary.
(2)
Appeal
If the Secretary denies an application for the certification of a facility submitted under paragraph (1)(A), the Secretary shall provide the owner or lessor of the facility or the agent of the owner or lessor who submitted such application—
(A)
a statement of the grounds on which the denial is based, and
(B)
an opportunity for an appeal in accordance with the procedures set forth in regulations of the Secretary published at part 498 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations.
(3)
Effect of denial
(e)
Accreditation
(1)
Approval of accreditation bodies
(A)
In general
(B)
Standards
The Secretary shall establish standards for accreditation bodies, including—
(i)
standards that require an accreditation body to perform—
(I)
a review of clinical images from each facility accredited by such body not less often than every 3 years which review will be made by qualified review physicians; and
(II)
a review of a random sample of clinical images from such facilities in each 3-year period beginning October 1, 1994, which review will be made by qualified review physicians;
(ii)
standards that prohibit individuals conducting the reviews described in clause (i) from maintaining any relationship to the facility undergoing review which would constitute a conflict of interest;
(iii)
standards that limit the imposition of fees for accreditation to reasonable amounts;
(iv)
standards that require as a condition of accreditation that each facility undergo a survey at least annually by a medical physicist as described in subsection (f)(1)(E) to ensure that the facility meets the standards described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (f)(1);
(v)
standards that require monitoring and evaluation of such survey, as prescribed by the Secretary;
(vi)
standards that are equal to standards established under subsection (f) which are relevant to accreditation as determined by the Secretary; and
(vii)
such additional standards as the Secretary may require.
(C)
Assurances
The accrediting body shall provide the Secretary satisfactory assurances that the body will—
(i)
comply with the standards as described in subparagraph (B);
(ii)
comply with the requirements described in paragraph (4);
(iii)
submit to the Secretary the name of any facility for which the accreditation body denies, suspends, or revokes accreditation;
(iv)
notify the Secretary in a timely manner before the accreditation body changes the standards of the body;
(v)
notify each facility accredited by the accreditation body if the Secretary withdraws approval of the accreditation body under paragraph (2) in a timely manner; and
(vi)
provide such other additional information as the Secretary may require.
(D)
Regulations
(2)
Withdrawal of approval
(A)
In general
(B)
Effect of withdrawal
(3)
Accreditation
To be accredited by an approved accreditation body a facility shall meet—
(A)
the standards described in paragraph (1)(B) which the Secretary determines are applicable to the facility, and
(B)
such other standards which the accreditation body may require.
(4)
Compliance
To ensure that facilities accredited by an accreditation body will continue to meet the standards of the accreditation body, the accreditation body shall—
(A)
make onsite visits on an annual basis of a sufficient number of the facilities accredited by the body to allow a reasonable estimate of the performance of the body; and
(B)
take such additional measures as the Secretary determines to be appropriate.
Visits made under subparagraph (A) shall be made after providing such notice as the Secretary may require.
(5)
Revocation of accreditation
(6)
Evaluation and report
(A)
Evaluation
The Secretary shall evaluate annually the performance of each approved accreditation body by—
(i)
inspecting under subsection (g)(2) a sufficient number of the facilities accredited by the body to allow a reasonable estimate of the performance of the body; and
(ii)
such additional means as the Secretary determines to be appropriate.
(B)
Report
(f)
Quality standards
(1)
In general
The standards referred to in subsection (d)(1)(B)(i) are standards established by the Secretary which include—
(A)
standards that require establishment and maintenance of a quality assurance and quality control program at each facility that is adequate and appropriate to ensure the reliability, clarity, and accuracy of interpretation of mammograms and standards for appropriate radiation dose;
(B)
standards that require use of radiological equipment specifically designed for mammography, including radiologic standards and standards for other equipment and materials used in conjunction with such equipment;
(C)
a requirement that personnel who perform mammography—
(i)
(I)
be licensed by a State to perform radiological procedures; or
(II)
be certified as qualified to perform radiological procedures by an organization described in paragraph (2)(A); and
(ii)
during the 2-year period beginning October 1, 1994, meet training standards for personnel who perform mammography or meet experience requirements which shall at a minimum include 1 year of experience in the performance of mammography; and
(iii)
upon the expiration of such 2-year period meet minimum training standards for personnel who perform mammograms;
(D)
a requirement that mammograms be interpreted by a physician who is certified as qualified to interpret radiological procedures, including mammography—
(i)
(I)
by a board described in paragraph (2)(B); or
(II)
by a program that complies with the standards described in paragraph (2)(C); and
(ii)
who meets training and continuing medical education requirements as established by the Secretary;
(E)
a requirement that individuals who survey mammography facilities be medical physicists—
(i)
licensed or approved by a State to perform such surveys, reviews, or inspections for mammography facilities;
(ii)
certified in diagnostic radiological physics or certified as qualified to perform such surveys by a board as described in paragraph (2)(D); or
(iii)
in the first 5 years after October 27, 1992, who meet other criteria established by the Secretary which are comparable to the criteria described in clause (i) or (ii);
(F)
a requirement that a medical physicist who is qualified in mammography as described in subparagraph (E) survey mammography equipment and oversee quality assurance practices at each facility;
(G)
a requirement that—
(i)
a facility that performs any mammogram—
(I)
except as provided in subclause (II), maintain the mammogram in the permanent medical records of the patient for a period of not less than 5 years, or not less than 10 years if no subsequent mammograms of such patient are performed at the facility, or longer if mandated by State law; and
(II)
upon the request of or on behalf of the patient, transfer the mammogram to a medical institution, to a physician of the patient, or to the patient directly; and
(ii)
(I)
a facility must assure the preparation of a written report of the results of any mammography examination signed by the interpreting physician;
(II)
such written report shall be provided to the patient’s physicians (if any);
(III)
if such a physician is not available or if there is no such physician, the written report shall be sent directly to the patient; and
(IV)
whether or not such a physician is available or there is no such physician, a summary of the written report shall be sent directly to the patient in terms easily understood by a lay person; and
(H)
standards relating to special techniques for mammography of patients with breast implants.
Subparagraph (G) shall not be construed to limit a patient’s access to the patient’s medical records.
(2)
Certification of personnel
The Secretary shall by regulation—
(A)
specify organizations eligible to certify individuals to perform radiological procedures as required by paragraph (1)(C);
(B)
specify boards eligible to certify physicians to interpret radiological procedures, including mammography, as required by paragraph (1)(D);
(C)
establish standards for a program to certify physicians described in paragraph (1)(D); and
(D)
specify boards eligible to certify medical physicists who are qualified to survey mammography equipment and to oversee quality assurance practices at mammography facilities.
(g)
Inspections
(1)
Annual inspections
(A)
In general
(B)
Identification
(C)
Scope of inspection
In conducting inspections, the Secretary or State or local agency acting on behalf of the Secretary—
(i)
shall have access to all equipment, materials, records, and information that the Secretary or State or local agency considers necessary to determine whether the facility is being operated in accordance with this section; and
(ii)
may copy, or require the facility to submit to the Secretary or the State or local agency, any of the materials, records, or information.
(D)
Qualifications of inspectors
(E)
Frequency
(F)
Records and annual reports
(2)
Inspection of accredited facilities
(3)
Inspection of facilities inspected by State or local agencies
(4)
Timing
(5)
Limited reinspection
(6)
Demonstration program
(A)
In general
(B)
Requirements
Any demonstration program under subparagraph (A) shall be carried out in accordance with the following:
(i)
The program may not be implemented before April 1, 2001. Preparations for the program may be carried out prior to such date.
(ii)
In carrying out the program, the Secretary may not select a facility for inclusion in the program unless the facility is substantially free of incidents of noncompliance with the standards under subsection (f). The Secretary may at any time provide that a facility will no longer be included in the program.
(iii)
The number of facilities selected for inclusion in the program shall be sufficient to provide a statistically significant sample, subject to compliance with clause (ii).
(iv)
Facilities that are selected for inclusion in the program shall be inspected at such intervals as the Secretary determines will reasonably ensure that the facilities are maintaining compliance with such standards.
(h)
Sanctions
(1)
In general
In order to promote voluntary compliance with this section, the Secretary may, in lieu of taking the actions authorized by subsection (i), impose one or more of the following sanctions:
(A)
Directed plans of correction which afford a facility an opportunity to correct violations in a timely manner.
(B)
Payment for the cost of onsite monitoring.
(2)
Patient information
(3)
Civil money penalties
The Secretary may assess civil money penalties in an amount not to exceed $10,000 for—
(A)
failure to obtain a certificate as required by subsection (b),
(B)
each failure by a facility to substantially comply with, or each day on which a facility fails to substantially comply with, the standards established under subsection (f) or the requirements described in subclauses (I) through (III) of subsection (d)(1)(B)(ii),
(C)
each failure to notify a patient of risk as required by the Secretary pursuant to paragraph (2), and
(D)
each violation, or for each aiding and abetting in a violation of, any provision of, or regulation promulgated under, this section by an owner, operator, or any employee of a facility required to have a certificate.
(4)
Procedures
(i)
Suspension and revocation
(1)
In general
The certificate of a facility issued under subsection (c) may be suspended or revoked if the Secretary finds, after providing, except as provided in paragraph (2), reasonable notice and an opportunity for a hearing to the owner or operator of the facility, that the owner, operator, or any employee of the facility—
(A)
has been guilty of misrepresentation in obtaining the certificate;
(B)
has failed to comply with the requirements of subsection (d)(1)(B)(ii)(III) or the standards established by the Secretary under subsection (f);
(C)
has failed to comply with reasonable requests of the Secretary (or of an accreditation body approved pursuant to subsection (e)) for any record, information, report, or material that the Secretary (or such accreditation body or State carrying out certification program requirements pursuant to subsection (q)) concludes is necessary to determine the continued eligibility of the facility for a certificate or continued compliance with the standards established under subsection (f);
(D)
has refused a reasonable request of the Secretary, any Federal officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary, or any State or local officer or employee duly designated by the State or local agency, for permission to inspect the facility or the operations and pertinent records of the facility in accordance with subsection (g);
(E)
has violated or aided and abetted in the violation of any provision of, or regulation promulgated under, this section; or
(F)
has failed to comply with a sanction imposed under subsection (h).
(2)
Action before a hearing
(A)
In general
The Secretary may suspend the certificate of the facility before holding a hearing required by paragraph (1) if the Secretary has reason to believe that the circumstance of the case will support one or more of the findings described in paragraph (1) and that—
(i)
the failure or violation was intentional; or
(ii)
the failure or violation presents a serious risk to human health.
(B)
Hearing
(3)
Ineligibility to own or operate facilities after revocation
(j)
Injunctions
If the Secretary determines that—
(1)
continuation of any activity related to the provision of mammography by a facility would constitute a serious risk to human health, the Secretary may bring suit in the district court of the United States for the district in which the facility is situated to enjoin continuation of the activity; and
(2)
a facility is operating without a certificate as required by subsection (b), the Secretary may bring suit in the district court of the United States for the district in which the facility is situated to enjoin the operation of the facility.
Upon a proper showing, the district court shall grant a temporary injunction or restraining order against continuation of the activity or against operation of a facility, as the case may be, without requiring the Secretary to post a bond, pending issuance of a final order under this subsection.
(k)
Judicial review
(1)
Petition
(2)
Additional evidence
(3)
Judgment of court
(4)
Finality of judgment
(l)
Information
(1)
In general
Not later than October 1, 1996, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall compile and make available to physicians and the general public information that the Secretary determines is useful in evaluating the performance of facilities, including a list of facilities—
(A)
that have been convicted under Federal or State laws relating to fraud and abuse, false billings, or kickbacks;
(B)
that have been subject to sanctions under subsection (h), together with a statement of the reasons for the sanctions;
(C)
that have had certificates revoked or suspended under subsection (i), together with a statement of the reasons for the revocation or suspension;
(D)
against which the Secretary has taken action under subsection (j), together with a statement of the reasons for the action;
(E)
whose accreditation has been revoked, together with a statement of the reasons of the revocation;
(F)
against which a State has taken adverse action; and
(G)
that meets such other measures of performance as the Secretary may develop.
(2)
Date
(3)
Explanatory information
(m)
State laws
(n)
National Advisory Committee
(1)
Establishment
(2)
Composition
The Advisory Committee shall be composed of not fewer than 13, nor more than 19 individuals, who are not officers or employees of the Federal Government. The Secretary shall make appointments to the Advisory Committee from among—
(A)
physicians,
(B)
practitioners, and
(C)
other health professionals,
whose clinical practice, research specialization, or professional expertise include a significant focus on mammography. The Secretary shall appoint at least 4 individuals from among national breast cancer or consumer health organizations with expertise in mammography, at least 2 industry representatives with expertise in mammography equipment, and at least 2 practicing physicians who provide mammography services.
(3)
Functions and duties
The Advisory Committee shall—
(A)
advise the Secretary on appropriate quality standards and regulations for mammography facilities;
(B)
advise the Secretary on appropriate standards and regulations for accreditation bodies;
(C)
advise the Secretary in the development of regulations with respect to sanctions;
(D)
assist in developing procedures for monitoring compliance with standards under subsection (f);
(E)
make recommendations and assist in the establishment of a mechanism to investigate consumer complaints;
(F)
report on new developments concerning breast imaging that should be considered in the oversight of mammography facilities;
(G)
determine whether there exists a shortage of mammography facilities in rural and health professional shortage areas and determine the effects of personnel or other requirements of subsection (f) on access to the services of such facilities in such areas;
(H)
determine whether there will exist a sufficient number of medical physicists after October 1, 1999, to assure compliance with the requirements of subsection (f)(1)(E);
(I)
determine the costs and benefits of compliance with the requirements of this section (including the requirements of regulations promulgated under this section); and
(J)
perform other activities that the Secretary may require.
The Advisory Committee shall report the findings made under subparagraphs (G) and (I) to the Secretary and the Congress no later than October 1, 1993.
(4)
Meetings
(5)
Chairperson
(o)
Consultations
(p)
Breast cancer screening surveillance research grants
(1)
Research
(A)
Grants
(B)
Use of funds
Grants awarded under subparagraph (A) may be used—
(i)
to study—
(I)
methods to link mammography and clinical breast examination records with population-based cancer registry data;
(II)
methods to provide diagnostic outcome data, or facilitate the communication of diagnostic outcome data, to radiology facilities for purposes of evaluating patterns of mammography interpretation; and
(III)
mechanisms for limiting access and maintaining confidentiality of all stored data; and
(ii)
to conduct pilot testing of the methods and mechanisms described in subclauses (I), (II), and (III) of clause (i) on a limited basis.
(C)
Grant application
(D)
Report
(2)
Establishment
(3)
Standards and procedures
(4)
Information
(q)
State program
(1)
In general
The Secretary may, upon application, authorize a State—
(A)
to carry out, subject to paragraph (2), the certification program requirements under subsections (b), (c), (d), (g)(1), (h), (i), and (j) (including the requirements under regulations promulgated pursuant to such subsections), and
(B)
to implement the standards established by the Secretary under subsection (f),
with respect to mammography facilities operating within the State.
(2)
Approval
The Secretary may approve an application under paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines that—
(A)
the State has enacted laws and issued regulations relating to mammography facilities which are the requirements of this section (including the requirements under regulations promulgated pursuant to such subsections), and
(B)
the State has provided satisfactory assurances that the State—
(i)
has the legal authority and qualified personnel necessary to enforce the requirements of and the regulations promulgated pursuant to this section (including the requirements under regulations promulgated pursuant to such subsections),
(ii)
will devote adequate funds to the administration and enforcement of such requirements, and
(iii)
will provide the Secretary with such information and reports as the Secretary may require.
(3)
Authority of Secretary
In a State with an approved application—
(A)
the Secretary shall carry out the Secretary’s functions under subsections (e) and (f);
(B)
the Secretary may take action under subsections (h), (i), and (j); and
(C)
the Secretary shall conduct oversight functions under subsections (g)(2) and (g)(3).
(4)
Withdrawal of approval
(A)
In general
(B)
Effect of withdrawal
(r)
Funding
(1)
Fees
(A)
In general
(B)
Deposit and appropriations
(i)
Deposit and availability
(ii)
Appropriations
(2)
Authorization of appropriations
There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—
(A)
to award research grants under subsection (p), such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1993 through 2007; and
(B)
for the Secretary to carry out other activities which are not supported by fees authorized and collected under paragraph (1), such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 1993 through 2007.
(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, § 354, as added Pub. L. 102–539, § 2, Oct. 27, 1992, 106 Stat. 3547; amended Pub. L. 105–248, §§ 2–13, Oct. 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 1864–1867; Pub. L. 108–365, §§ 2–4, Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1738–1740.)
cite as: 42 USC 263b