U.S Code last checked for updates: May 20, 2024
§ 72.
Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts
(a)
General rules for annuities
(1)
Income inclusion
(2)
Partial annuitization
If any amount is received as an annuity for a period of 10 years or more or during one or more lives under any portion of an annuity, endowment, or life insurance contract—
(A)
such portion shall be treated as a separate contract for purposes of this section,
(B)
for purposes of applying subsections (b), (c), and (e), the investment in the contract shall be allocated pro rata between each portion of the contract from which amounts are received as an annuity and the portion of the contract from which amounts are not received as an annuity, and
(C)
a separate annuity starting date under subsection (c)(4) shall be determined with respect to each portion of the contract from which amounts are received as an annuity.
(b)
Exclusion ratio
(1)
In general
(2)
Exclusion limited to investment
(3)
Deduction where annuity payments cease before entire investment recovered
(A)
In general
If—
(i)
after the annuity starting date, payments as an annuity under the contract cease by reason of the death of an annuitant, and
(ii)
as of the date of such cessation, there is unrecovered investment in the contract,
the amount of such unrecovered investment (in excess of any amount specified in subsection (e)(5) which was not included in gross income) shall be allowed as a deduction to the annuitant for his last taxable year.
(B)
Payments to other persons
(C)
Net operating loss deductions provided
(4)
Unrecovered investment
For purposes of this subsection, the unrecovered investment in the contract as of any date is—
(A)
the investment in the contract (determined without regard to subsection (c)(2)) as of the annuity starting date, reduced by
(B)
the aggregate amount received under the contract on or after such annuity starting date and before the date as of which the determination is being made, to the extent such amount was excludable from gross income under this subtitle.
(c)
Definitions
(1)
Investment in the contract
For purposes of subsection (b), the investment in the contract as of the annuity starting date is—
(A)
the aggregate amount of premiums or other consideration paid for the contract, minus
(B)
the aggregate amount received under the contract before such date, to the extent that such amount was excludable from gross income under this subtitle or prior income tax laws.
(2)
Adjustment in investment where there is refund feature
If—
(A)
the expected return under the contract depends in whole or in part on the life expectancy of one or more individuals;
(B)
the contract provides for payments to be made to a beneficiary (or to the estate of an annuitant) on or after the death of the annuitant or annuitants; and
(C)
such payments are in the nature of a refund of the consideration paid,
then the value (computed without discount for interest) of such payments on the annuity starting date shall be subtracted from the amount determined under paragraph (1). Such value shall be computed in accordance with actuarial tables prescribed by the Secretary. For purposes of this paragraph and of subsection (e)(2)(A), the term “refund of the consideration paid” includes amounts payable after the death of an annuitant by reason of a provision in the contract for a life annuity with minimum period of payments certain, but (if part of the consideration was contributed by an employer) does not include that part of any payment to a beneficiary (or to the estate of the annuitant) which is not attributable to the consideration paid by the employee for the contract as determined under paragraph (1)(A).
(3)
Expected return
For purposes of subsection (b), the expected return under the contract shall be determined as follows:
(A)
Life expectancy
(B)
Installment payments
(4)
Annuity starting date
(d)
Special rules for qualified employer retirement plans
(1)
Simplified method of taxing annuity payments
(A)
In general
In the case of any amount received as an annuity under a qualified employer retirement plan—
(i)
subsection (b) shall not apply, and
(ii)
the investment in the contract shall be recovered as provided in this paragraph.
(B)
Method of recovering investment in contract
(i)
In general
Gross income shall not include so much of any monthly annuity payment under a qualified employer retirement plan as does not exceed the amount obtained by dividing—
(I)
the investment in the contract (as of the annuity starting date), by
(II)
the number of anticipated payments determined under the table contained in clause (iii) (or, in the case of a contract to which subsection (c)(3)(B) applies, the number of monthly annuity payments under such contract).
(ii)
Certain rules made applicable
(iii)
Number of anticipated payments
(iv)
Number of anticipated payments where more than one life
(C)
Adjustment for refund feature not applicable
(D)
Special rule where lump sum paid in connection with commencement of annuity payments
If, in connection with the commencement of annuity payments under any qualified employer retirement plan, the taxpayer receives a lump-sum payment—
(i)
such payment shall be taxable under subsection (e) as if received before the annuity starting date, and
(ii)
the investment in the contract for purposes of this paragraph shall be determined as if such payment had been so received.
(E)
Exception
(F)
Adjustment where annuity payments not on monthly basis
(G)
Qualified employer retirement plan
(2)
Treatment of employee contributions under defined contribution plans
(3)
Treatment of contributions to a pension-linked emergency savings account
(e)
Amounts not received as annuities
(1)
Application of subsection
(A)
In general
This subsection shall apply to any amount which—
(i)
is received under an annuity, endowment, or life insurance contract, and
(ii)
is not received as an annuity,
if no provision of this subtitle (other than this subsection) applies with respect to such amount.
(B)
Dividends
(2)
General rule
Any amount to which this subsection applies—
(A)
if received on or after the annuity starting date, shall be included in gross income, or
(B)
if received before the annuity starting date—
(i)
shall be included in gross income to the extent allocable to income on the contract, and
(ii)
shall not be included in gross income to the extent allocable to the investment in the contract.
(3)
Allocation of amounts to income and investment
For purposes of paragraph (2)(B)—
(A)
Allocation to income
Any amount to which this subsection applies shall be treated as allocable to income on the contract to the extent that such amount does not exceed the excess (if any) of—
(i)
the cash value of the contract (determined without regard to any surrender charge) immediately before the amount is received, over
(ii)
the investment in the contract at such time.
(B)
Allocation to investment
(4)
Special rules for application of paragraph (2)(B)
For purposes of paragraph (2)(B)—
(A)
Loans treated as distributions
If, during any taxable year, an individual—
(i)
receives (directly or indirectly) any amount as a loan under any contract to which this subsection applies, or
(ii)
assigns or pledges (or agrees to assign or pledge) any portion of the value of any such contract,
such amount or portion shall be treated as received under the contract as an amount not received as an annuity. The preceding sentence shall not apply for purposes of determining investment in the contract, except that the investment in the contract shall be increased by any amount included in gross income by reason of the amount treated as received under the preceding sentence.
(B)
Treatment of policyholder dividends
(C)
Treatment of transfers without adequate consideration
(i)
In general
If an individual who holds an annuity contract transfers it without full and adequate consideration, such individual shall be treated as receiving an amount equal to the excess of—
(I)
the cash surrender value of such contract at the time of transfer, over
(II)
the investment in such contract at such time,
 under the contract as an amount not received as an annuity.
(ii)
Exception for certain transfers between spouses or former spouses
(iii)
Adjustment to investment in contract of transferee
(5)
Retention of existing rules in certain cases
(A)
In general
In any case to which this paragraph applies—
(i)
paragraphs (2)(B) and (4)(A) shall not apply, and
(ii)
if paragraph (2)(A) does not apply,
the amount shall be included in gross income, but only to the extent it exceeds the investment in the contract.
(B)
Existing contracts
(C)
Certain life insurance and endowment contracts
(D)
Contracts under qualified plans
Except as provided in paragraph (8), this paragraph shall apply to any amount received—
(i)
from a trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a),
(ii)
from a contract—
(I)
purchased by a trust described in clause (i),
(II)
purchased as part of a plan described in section 403(a),
(III)
described in section 403(b), or
(IV)
provided for employees of a life insurance company under a plan described in section 818(a)(3), or
(iii)
from an individual retirement account or an individual retirement annuity.
Any dividend described in section 404(k) which is received by a participant or beneficiary shall, for purposes of this subparagraph, be treated as paid under a separate contract to which clause (ii)(I) applies.
(E)
Full refunds, surrenders, redemptions, and maturities
This paragraph shall apply to—
(i)
any amount received, whether in a single sum or otherwise, under a contract in full discharge of the obligation under the contract which is in the nature of a refund of the consideration paid for the contract, and
(ii)
any amount received under a contract on its complete surrender, redemption, or maturity.
In the case of any amount to which the preceding sentence applies, the rule of paragraph (2)(A) shall not apply.
(6)
Investment in the contract
For purposes of this subsection, the investment in the contract as of any date is—
(A)
the aggregate amount of premiums or other consideration paid for the contract before such date, minus
(B)
the aggregate amount received under the contract before such date, to the extent that such amount was excludable from gross income under this subtitle or prior income tax laws.
[(7)
Repealed. Pub. L. 100–647, title I, § 1011A(b)(9)(A), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3474]
(8)
Extension of paragraph (2)(b) 1
1
 So in original. Probably should be paragraph “(2)(B)”.
to qualified plans
(A)
In general
(B)
Allocation of amount received
(C)
Treatment of forfeitable rights
(D)
Investment in the contract before 1987
(9)
Extension of paragraph (2)(B) to qualified tuition programs and Coverdell education savings accounts
(10)
Treatment of modified endowment contracts
(A)
In general
Notwithstanding paragraph (5)(C), in the case of any modified endowment contract (as defined in section 7702A)—
(i)
paragraphs (2)(B) and (4)(A) shall apply, and
(ii)
in applying paragraph (4)(A), “any person” shall be substituted for “an individual”.
(B)
Treatment of certain burial contracts
(11)
Special rules for certain combination contracts providing long-term care insurance
Notwithstanding paragraphs (2), (5)(C), and (10), in the case of any charge against the cash value of an annuity contract or the cash surrender value of a life insurance contract made as payment for coverage under a qualified long-term care insurance contract which is part of or a rider on such annuity or life insurance contract—
(A)
the investment in the contract shall be reduced (but not below zero) by such charge, and
(B)
such charge shall not be includible in gross income.
(12)
Anti-abuse rules
(A)
In general
For purposes of determining the amount includible in gross income under this subsection—
(i)
all modified endowment contracts issued by the same company to the same policyholder during any calendar year shall be treated as 1 modified endowment contract, and
(ii)
all annuity contracts issued by the same company to the same policyholder during any calendar year shall be treated as 1 annuity contract.
The preceding sentence shall not apply to any contract described in paragraph (5)(D).
(B)
Regulatory authority
(f)
Special rules for computing employees’ contributions
In computing, for purposes of subsection (c)(1)(A), the aggregate amount of premiums or other consideration paid for the contract, and for purposes of subsection (e)(6), the aggregate premiums or other consideration paid, amounts contributed by the employer shall be included, but only to the extent that—
(1)
such amounts were includible in the gross income of the employee under this subtitle or prior income tax laws; or
(2)
if such amounts had been paid directly to the employee at the time they were contributed, they would not have been includible in the gross income of the employee under the law applicable at the time of such contribution.
Paragraph (2) shall not apply to amounts which were contributed by the employer after December 31, 1962, and which would not have been includible in the gross income of the employee by reason of the application of section 911 if such amounts had been paid directly to the employee at the time of contribution. The preceding sentence shall not apply to amounts which were contributed by the employer, as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, to provide pension or annuity credits, to the extent such credits are attributable to services performed before January 1, 1963, and are provided pursuant to pension or annuity plan provisions in existence on March 12, 1962, and on that date applicable to such services, or to the extent such credits are attributable to services performed as a foreign missionary (within the meaning of section 403(b)(2)(D)(iii), as in effect before the enactment of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001).
(g)
Rules for transferee where transfer was for value
Where any contract (or any interest therein) is transferred (by assignment or otherwise) for a valuable consideration, to the extent that the contract (or interest therein) does not, in the hands of the transferee, have a basis which is determined by reference to the basis in the hands of the transferor, then—
(1)
for purposes of this section, only the actual value of such consideration, plus the amount of the premiums and other consideration paid by the transferee after the transfer, shall be taken into account in computing the aggregate amount of the premiums or other consideration paid for the contract;
(2)
for purposes of subsection (c)(1)(B), there shall be taken into account only the aggregate amount received under the contract by the transferee before the annuity starting date, to the extent that such amount was excludable from gross income under this subtitle or prior income tax laws; and
(3)
the annuity starting date is the first day of the first period for which the transferee received an amount under the contract as an annuity.
For purposes of this subsection, the term “transferee” includes a beneficiary of, or the estate of, the transferee.
(h)
Option to receive annuity in lieu of lump sum
If—
(1)
a contract provides for payment of a lump sum in full discharge of an obligation under the contract, subject to an option to receive an annuity in lieu of such lump sum;
(2)
the option is exercised within 60 days after the day on which such lump sum first became payable; and
(3)
part or all of such lump sum would (but for this subsection) be includible in gross income by reason of subsection (e)(1),
then, for purposes of this subtitle, no part of such lump sum shall be considered as includible in gross income at the time such lump sum first became payable.
[(i)
Repealed. Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, § 1951(b)(1)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1836]
(j)
Interest
[(k)
Repealed. Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, § 421(b)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 794]
(l)
Face-amount certificates
(m)
Special rules applicable to employee annuities and distributions under employee plans
[(1)
Repealed. Pub. L. 93–406, title II, § 2001(h)(2), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 957]
(2)
Computation of consideration paid by the employee
In computing—
(A)
the aggregate amount of premiums or other consideration paid for the contract for purposes of subsection (c)(1)(A) (relating to the investment in the contract), and
(B)
the aggregate premiums or other consideration paid for purposes of subsection (e)(6) (relating to certain amounts not received as an annuity),
any amount allowed as a deduction with respect to the contract under section 404 which was paid while the employee was an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) shall be treated as consideration contributed by the employer, and there shall not be taken into account any portion of the premiums or other consideration for the contract paid while the employee was an owner-employee which is properly allocable (as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary) to the cost of life, accident, health, or other insurance.
(3)
Life insurance contracts
(A)
This paragraph shall apply to any life insurance contract—
(i)
purchased as a part of a plan described in section 403(a), or
(ii)
purchased by a trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a) if the proceeds of such contract are payable directly or indirectly to a participant in such trust or to a beneficiary of such participant.
(B)
Any contribution to a plan described in subparagraph (A)(i) or a trust described in subparagraph (A)(ii) which is allowed as a deduction under section 404, and any income of a trust described in subparagraph (A)(ii), which is determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary to have been applied to purchase the life insurance protection under a contract described in subparagraph (A), is includible in the gross income of the participant for the taxable year when so applied.
(C)
In the case of the death of an individual insured under a contract described in subparagraph (A), an amount equal to the cash surrender value of the contract immediately before the death of the insured shall be treated as a payment under such plan or a distribution by such trust, and the excess of the amount payable by reason of the death of the insured over such cash surrender value shall not be includible in gross income under this section and shall be treated as provided in section 101.
[(4)
Repealed. Pub. L. 97–248, title II, § 236(b)(1), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 510]
(5)
Penalties applicable to certain amounts received by 5-percent owners
(A)
This paragraph applies to amounts which are received from a qualified trust described in section 401(a) or under a plan described in section 403(a) at any time by an individual who is, or has been, a 5-percent owner, or by a successor of such an individual, but only to the extent such amounts are determined, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, to exceed the benefits provided for such individual under the plan formula.
(B)
If a person receives an amount to which this paragraph applies, his tax under this chapter for the taxable year in which such amount is received shall be increased by an amount equal to 10 percent of the portion of the amount so received which is includible in his gross income for such taxable year.
(C)
For purposes of this paragraph, the term “5-percent owner” means any individual who, at any time during the 5 plan years preceding the plan year ending in the taxable year in which the amount is received, is a 5-percent owner (as defined in section 416(i)(1)(B)).
(6)
Owner-employee defined
(7)
Meaning of disabled
[(8)
Repealed. Pub. L. 97–248, title II, § 236(b)(1), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 510]
[(9)
Repealed. Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, § 713(d)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 957]
(10)
Determination of investment in the contract in the case of qualified domestic relations orders
(n)
Annuities under retired serviceman’s family protection plan or survivor benefit plan
(o)
Special rules for distributions from qualified plans to which employee made deductible contributions
(1)
Treatment of contributions
[(2)
Repealed. Pub. L. 100–647, title I, § 1011A(c)(8), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3476]
(3)
Amounts constructively received
(A)
In general
(B)
Purchase of life insurance
(4)
Special rule for treatment of rollover amounts
(5)
Definitions and special rules
For purposes of this subsection—
(A)
Deductible employee contributions
(B)
Accumulated deductible employee contributions
The term “accumulated deductible employee contributions” means the deductible employee contributions—
(i)
increased by the amount of income and gain allocable to such contributions, and
(ii)
reduced by the sum of the amount of loss and expense allocable to such contributions and the amounts distributed with respect to the employee which are attributable to such contributions (or income or gain allocable to such contributions).
(C)
Qualified employer plan
(D)
Government plan
(6)
Ordering rules
(p)
Loans treated as distributions
For purposes of this section—
(1)
Treatment as distributions
(A)
Loans
(B)
Assignments or pledges
(2)
Exception for certain loans
(A)
General rule
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any loan to the extent that such loan (when added to the outstanding balance of all other loans from such plan whether made on, before, or after August 13, 1982), does not exceed the lesser of—
(i)
$50,000, reduced by the excess (if any) of—
(I)
the highest outstanding balance of loans from the plan during the 1-year period ending on the day before the date on which such loan was made, over
(II)
the outstanding balance of loans from the plan on the date on which such loan was made, or
(ii)
the greater of (I) one-half of the present value of the nonforfeitable accrued benefit of the employee under the plan, or (II) $10,000.
For purposes of clause (ii), the present value of the nonforfeitable accrued benefit shall be determined without regard to any accumulated deductible employee contributions (as defined in subsection (o)(5)(B)).
(B)
Requirement that loan be repayable within 5 years
(i)
In general
(ii)
Exception for home loans
(C)
Requirement of level amortization
(D)
Prohibition of loans through credit cards and other similar arrangements
(E)
Related employers and related plans
For purposes of this paragraph—
(i)
the rules of subsections (b), (c), and (m) of section 414 shall apply, and
(ii)
all plans of an employer (determined after the application of such subsections) shall be treated as 1 plan.
(3)
Denial of interest deductions in certain cases
(A)
In general
(B)
Period to which subparagraph (A) applies
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the period described in this subparagraph is the period—
(i)
on or after the 1st day on which the individual to whom the loan is made is a key employee (as defined in section 416(i)), or
(ii)
such loan is secured by amounts attributable to elective deferrals described in subparagraph (A) or (C) of section 402(g)(3).
(4)
Qualified employer plan, etc.
For purposes of this subsection—
(A)
Qualified employer plan
(i)
In general
The term “qualified employer plan” means—
(I)
a plan described in section 401(a) which includes a trust exempt from tax under section 501(a),
(II)
an annuity plan described in section 403(a), and
(III)
a plan under which amounts are contributed by an individual’s employer for an annuity contract described in section 403(b).
(ii)
Special rule
(B)
Government plan
(5)
Special rules for loans, etc., from certain contracts
(6)
Increase in limit on loans not treated as distributions
(A)
In general
In the case of any loan from a qualified employer plan to a qualified individual made during the applicable period—
(i)
clause (i) of paragraph (2)(A) shall be applied by substituting “$100,000” for “$50,000”, and
(ii)
clause (ii) of such paragraph shall be applied by substituting “the present value of the nonforfeitable accrued benefit of the employee under the plan” for “one-half of the present value of the nonforfeitable accrued benefit of the employee under the plan”.
(B)
Delay of repayment
In the case of a qualified individual with respect to any qualified disaster with an outstanding loan from a qualified employer plan on or after the applicable date with respect to the qualified disaster—
(i)
if the due date pursuant to subparagraph (B) or (C) of paragraph (2) for any repayment with respect to such loan occurs during the period beginning on the first day of the incident period of such qualified disaster and ending on the date which is 180 days after the last day of such incident period, such due date may be delayed for 1 year,
(ii)
any subsequent repayments with respect to any such loan may be appropriately adjusted to reflect the delay in the due date under clause (i) and any interest accruing during such delay, and
(iii)
in determining the 5-year period and the term of a loan under subparagraph (B) or (C) of paragraph (2), the period described in clause (i) may be disregarded.
(C)
Definitions
For purposes of this paragraph—
(i)
Qualified individual
The term “qualified individual” means any individual—
(I)
whose principal place of abode at any time during the incident period of any qualified disaster is located in the qualified disaster area with respect to such qualified disaster, and
(II)
who has sustained an economic loss by reason of such qualified disaster.
(ii)
Applicable period
The applicable period with respect to any disaster is the period—
(I)
beginning on the applicable date with respect to such disaster, and
(II)
ending on the date that is 180 days after such applicable date.
(iii)
Other terms
For purposes of this paragraph—
(I)
the terms “applicable date”, “qualified disaster”, “qualified disaster area”, and “incident period” have the meaning given such terms under subsection (t)(11), and
(II)
the term “applicable period” has the meaning given such term under subsection (t)(8).
(q)
10-percent penalty for premature distributions from annuity contracts
(1)
Imposition of penalty
(2)
Subsection not to apply to certain distributions
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any distribution—
(A)
made on or after the date on which the taxpayer attains age 59½,
(B)
made on or after the death of the holder (or, where the holder is not an individual, the death of the primary annuitant (as defined in subsection (s)(6)(B))),
(C)
attributable to the taxpayer’s becoming disabled within the meaning of subsection (m)(7),
(D)
which is a part of a series of substantially equal periodic payments (not less frequently than annually) made for the life (or life expectancy) of the taxpayer or the joint lives (or joint life expectancies) of such taxpayer and his designated beneficiary,
(E)
from a plan, contract, account, trust, or annuity described in subsection (e)(5)(D),
(F)
allocable to investment in the contract before August 14, 1982, or 2
2
 So in original. The word “or” probably should not appear.
(G)
under a qualified funding asset (within the meaning of section 130(d), but without regard to whether there is a qualified assignment),
(H)
to which subsection (t) applies (without regard to paragraph (2) thereof),
(I)
under an immediate annuity contract (within the meaning of section 72(u)(4)), or
(J)
which is purchased by an employer upon the termination of a plan described in section 401(a) or 403(a) and which is held by the employer until such time as the employee separates from service.
For purposes of subparagraph (D), periodic payments shall not fail to be treated as substantially equal merely because they are amounts received as an annuity, and such periodic payments shall be deemed to be substantially equal if they are payable over a period described in subparagraph (D) and would satisfy the requirements applicable to annuity payments under section 401(a)(9) if such requirements applied.
(3)
Change in substantially equal payments
(A)
In general
If—
(i)
paragraph (1) does not apply to a distribution by reason of paragraph (2)(D), and
(ii)
the series of payments under such paragraph are subsequently modified (other than by reason of death or disability)—
(I)
before the close of the 5-year period beginning on the date of the first payment and after the taxpayer attains age 59½, or
(II)
before the taxpayer attains age 59½,
the taxpayer’s tax for the 1st taxable year in which such modification occurs shall be increased by an amount, determined under regulations, equal to the tax which (but for paragraph (2)(D)) would have been imposed, plus interest for the deferral period (within the meaning of subsection (t)(4)(B)).
(B)
Exchanges to subsequent contracts
If—
(i)
payments described in paragraph (2)(D) are being made from an annuity contract,
(ii)
an exchange of all or a portion of such contract for another contract is made under section 1035, and
(iii)
the aggregate distributions from the contracts involved in the exchange continue to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (2)(D) as if the exchange had not taken place,
such exchange shall not be treated as a modification under subparagraph (A)(ii), and compliance with paragraph (2)(D) shall be determined on the basis of the combined distributions described in clause (iii).
(r)
Certain railroad retirement benefits treated as received under employer plans
(1)
In general
(2)
Tier 2 taxes treated as contributions
(A)
In general
For purposes of paragraph (1)—
(i)
the tier 2 portion of the tax imposed by section 3201 (relating to tax on employees) shall be treated as an employee contribution,
(ii)
the tier 2 portion of the tax imposed by section 3211 (relating to tax on employee representatives) shall be treated as an employee contribution, and
(iii)
the tier 2 portion of the tax imposed by section 3221 (relating to tax on employers) shall be treated as an employer contribution.
(B)
Tier 2 portion
For purposes of subparagraph (A)—
(i)
After 1984
(ii)
After September 30, 1981, and before 1985
With respect to compensation paid before 1985 for services rendered after September 30, 1981, the tier 2 portion shall be—
(I)
so much of the tax imposed by section 3201 as is determined at the 2 percent rate, and
(II)
so much of the taxes imposed by sections 3211 and 3221 as is determined at the 11.75 percent rate.
 With respect to compensation paid for services rendered after December 31, 1983, and before 1985, subclause (I) shall be applied by substituting “2.75 percent” for “2 percent”, and subclause (II) shall be applied by substituting “12.75 percent” for “11.75 percent”.
(iii)
Before October 1, 1981
With respect to compensation paid for services rendered during any period before October 1, 1981, the tier 2 portion shall be the excess (if any) of—
(I)
the tax imposed for such period by section 3201, 3211, or 3221, as the case may be (other than any tax imposed with respect to man-hours), over
(II)
the tax which would have been imposed by such section for such period had the rates of the comparable taxes imposed by chapter 21 for such period applied under such section.
(C)
Contributions not allocable to supplemental annuity or windfall benefits
For purposes of paragraph (1), no amount treated as an employee contribution under this paragraph shall be allocated to—
(i)
any supplemental annuity paid under section 2(b) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, or
(ii)
any benefit paid under section 3(h), 4(e), or 4(h) of such Act.
(3)
Tier 1 railroad retirement benefit
(s)
Required distributions where holder dies before entire interest is distributed
(1)
In general
A contract shall not be treated as an annuity contract for purposes of this title unless it provides that—
(A)
if any holder of such contract dies on or after the annuity starting date and before the entire interest in such contract has been distributed, the remaining portion of such interest will be distributed at least as rapidly as under the method of distributions being used as of the date of his death, and
(B)
if any holder of such contract dies before the annuity starting date, the entire interest in such contract will be distributed within 5 years after the death of such holder.
(2)
Exception for certain amounts payable over life of beneficiary
If—
(A)
any portion of the holder’s interest is payable to (or for the benefit of) a designated beneficiary,
(B)
such portion will be distributed (in accordance with regulations) over the life of such designated beneficiary (or over a period not extending beyond the life expectancy of such beneficiary), and
(C)
such distributions begin not later than 1 year after the date of the holder’s death or such later date as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe,
then for purposes of paragraph (1), the portion referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be treated as distributed on the day on which such distributions begin.
(3)
Special rule where surviving spouse beneficiary
(4)
Designated beneficiary
(5)
Exception for certain annuity contracts
This subsection shall not apply to any annuity contract—
(A)
which is provided—
(i)
under a plan described in section 401(a) which includes a trust exempt from tax under section 501, or
(ii)
under a plan described in section 403(a),
(B)
which is described in section 403(b),
(C)
which is an individual retirement annuity or provided under an individual retirement account or annuity, or
(D)
which is a qualified funding asset (as defined in section 130(d), but without regard to whether there is a qualified assignment).
(6)
Special rule where holder is corporation or other non-individual
(A)
In general
(B)
Primary annuitant
(7)
Treatment of changes in primary annuitant where holder of contract is not an individual
(t)
10-percent additional tax on early distributions from qualified retirement plans
(1)
Imposition of additional tax
(2)
Subsection not to apply to certain distributions
Except as provided in paragraphs (3) and (4), paragraph (1) shall not apply to any of the following distributions:
(A)
In general
Distributions which are—
(i)
made on or after the date on which the employee attains age 59½,
(ii)
made to a beneficiary (or to the estate of the employee) on or after the death of the employee,
(iii)
attributable to the employee’s being disabled within the meaning of subsection (m)(7),
(iv)
part of a series of substantially equal periodic payments (not less frequently than annually) made for the life (or life expectancy) of the employee or the joint lives (or joint life expectancies) of such employee and his designated beneficiary,
(v)
made to an employee after separation from service after attainment of age 55,
(vi)
dividends paid with respect to stock of a corporation which are described in section 404(k),
(vii)
made on account of a levy under section 6331 on the qualified retirement plan,
(viii)
payments under a phased retirement annuity under section 8366a(a)(5) 3
3
 So in original. Probably should refer to section 8336a.
or 8412a(a)(5) of title 5, United States Code, or a composite retirement annuity under section 8366a(a)(1) 3 or 8412a(a)(1) of such title, or
(ix)
attributable to withdrawal of net income attributable to a contribution which is distributed pursuant to section 408(d)(4).
For purposes of clause (iv), periodic payments shall not fail to be treated as substantially equal merely because they are amounts received as an annuity, and such periodic payments shall be deemed to be substantially equal if they are payable over a period described in clause (iv) and satisfy the requirements applicable to annuity payments under section 401(a)(9).
(B)
Medical expenses
(C)
Payments to alternate payees pursuant to qualified domestic relations orders
(D)
Distributions to unemployed individuals for health insurance premiums
(i)
In general
Distributions from an individual retirement plan to an individual after separation from employment—
(I)
if such individual has received unemployment compensation for 12 consecutive weeks under any Federal or State unemployment compensation law by reason of such separation,
(II)
if such distributions are made during any taxable year during which such unemployment compensation is paid or the succeeding taxable year, and
(III)
to the extent such distributions do not exceed the amount paid during the taxable year for insurance described in section 213(d)(1)(D) with respect to the individual and the individual’s spouse and dependents (as defined in section 152, determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B) thereof).
(ii)
Distributions after reemployment
(iii)
Self-employed individuals
(E)
Distributions from individual retirement plans for higher education expenses
(F)
Distributions from certain plans for first home purchases
(G)
Distributions from retirement plans to individuals called to active duty
(i)
In general
(ii)
Amount distributed may be repaid
(iii)
Qualified reservist distribution
For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “qualified reservist distribution” means any distribution to an individual if—
(I)
such distribution is from an individual retirement plan, or from amounts attributable to employer contributions made pursuant to elective deferrals described in subparagraph (A) or (C) of section 402(g)(3) or section 501(c)(18)(D)(iii),
(II)
such individual was (by reason of being a member of a reserve component (as defined in section 101 of title 37, United States Code)) ordered or called to active duty for a period in excess of 179 days or for an indefinite period, and
(III)
such distribution is made during the period beginning on the date of such order or call and ending at the close of the active duty period.
(iv)
Application of subparagraph
(H)
Distributions from retirement plans in case of birth of child or adoption
(i)
In general
(ii)
Limitation
(iii)
Qualified birth or adoption distribution
For purposes of this subparagraph—
(I)
In general
(II)
Eligible adoptee
(iv)
Treatment of plan distributions
(I)
In general
(II)
Controlled group
(v)
Amount distributed may be repaid
(I)
In general
(II)
Limitation on contributions to applicable eligible retirement plans other than IRAs
(III)
Treatment of repayments of distributions from applicable eligible retirement plans other than IRAs
(IV)
Treatment of repayments for distributions from IRAs
(vi)
Definition and special rules
For purposes of this subparagraph—
(I)
Applicable eligible retirement plan
(II)
Exemption of distributions from trustee to trustee transfer and withholding rules
(III)
Taxpayer must include TIN
(IV)
Distributions treated as meeting plan distribution requirements
(I)
Distributions for certain emergency expenses
(i)
In general
(ii)
Annual limitation
(iii)
Dollar limitation
The amount which may be treated as an emergency personal expense distribution by any individual in any calendar year shall not exceed the lesser of $1,000 or an amount equal to the excess of—
(I)
the individual’s total nonforfeitable accrued benefit under the plan (the individual’s total interest in the plan in the case of an individual retirement plan), determined as of the date of each such distribution, over
(II)
$1,000.
(iv)
Emergency personal expense distribution
(v)
Treatment of plan distributions
(vi)
Amount distributed may be repaid
(vii)
Limitation on subsequent distributions
If a distribution is treated as an emergency personal expense distribution in any calendar year with respect to a plan of the employee, no amount may be treated as such a distribution during the immediately following 3 calendar years with respect to such plan unless—
(I)
such previous distribution is fully repaid to such plan pursuant to clause (vi), or
(II)
the aggregate of the elective deferrals and employee contributions to the plan (the total amounts contributed to the plan in the case of an individual retirement plan) subsequent to such previous distribution is at least equal to the amount of such previous distribution which has not been so repaid.
(viii)
Special rules
(J)
Distributions from pension-linked emergency savings account
(K)
Distribution from retirement plan in case of domestic abuse
(i)
In general
(ii)
Limitation
The aggregate amount which may be treated as an eligible distribution to a domestic abuse victim by any individual shall not exceed an amount equal to the lesser of—
(I)
$10,000, or
(II)
50 percent of the present value of the nonforfeitable accrued benefit of the employee under the plan.
(iii)
Eligible distribution to a domestic abuse victim
For purposes of this subparagraph—
(I)
In general
(II)
Domestic abuse
(iv)
Treatment of plan distributions
(v)
Amount distributed may be repaid
(vi)
Definition and special rules
For purposes of this subparagraph:
(I)
Applicable eligible retirement plan
(II)
Exemption of distributions from trustee to trustee transfer and withholding rules
(III)
Distributions treated as meeting plan distribution requirements; self-certification
(vii)
Inflation adjustment
In the case of a taxable year beginning in a calendar year after 2024, the $10,000 amount in clause (ii)(I) shall be increased by an amount equal to—
(I)
such dollar amount, multiplied by
(II)
the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, determined by substituting “calendar year 2023” for “calendar year 2016” in subparagraph (A)(ii) thereof.
If any amount after adjustment under the preceding sentence is not a multiple of $100, such amount shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $100.
(L)
Terminal illness
(i)
In general
(ii)
Definition
(iii)
Documentation
(iv)
Amount distributed may be repaid
(M)
Distributions from retirement plans in connection with federally declared disasters
(3)
Limitations
(A)
Certain exceptions not to apply to individual retirement plans
(B)
Periodic payments under qualified plans must begin after separation
(4)
Change in substantially equal payments
(A)
In general
If—
(i)
paragraph (1) does not apply to a distribution by reason of paragraph (2)(A)(iv), and
(ii)
the series of payments under such paragraph are subsequently modified (other than by reason of death or disability or a distribution to which paragraph (10) applies)—
(I)
before the close of the 5-year period beginning with the date of the first payment and after the employee attains age 59½, or
(II)
before the employee attains age 59½,
the taxpayer’s tax for the 1st taxable year in which such modification occurs shall be increased by an amount, determined under regulations, equal to the tax which (but for paragraph (2)(A)(iv)) would have been imposed, plus interest for the deferral period.
(B)
Deferral period
(C)
Rollovers to subsequent plan
If—
(i)
payments described in paragraph (2)(A)(iv) are being made from a qualified retirement plan,
(ii)
a transfer or a rollover from such qualified retirement plan of all or a portion of the taxpayer’s benefit under the plan is made to another qualified retirement plan, and
(iii)
distributions from the transferor and transferee plans would in combination continue to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (2)(A)(iv) if they had been made only from the transferor plan,
such transfer or rollover shall not be treated as a modification under subparagraph (A)(ii), and compliance with paragraph (2)(A)(iv) shall be determined on the basis of the combined distributions described in clause (iii).
(5)
Employee
(6)
Special rules for simple retirement accounts
(A)
In general
In the case of any amount received from a simple retirement account (within the meaning of section 408(p)) during the 2-year period beginning on the date such individual first participated in any qualified salary reduction arrangement maintained by the individual’s employer under section 408(p)(2), paragraph (1) shall be applied by substituting “25 percent” for “10 percent”.
(B)
Waiver in case of plan conversion to 401(k) or 403(b)
(7)
Qualified higher education expenses
For purposes of paragraph (2)(E)—
(A)
In general
The term “qualified higher education expenses” means qualified higher education expenses (as defined in section 529(e)(3)) for education furnished to—
(i)
the taxpayer,
(ii)
the taxpayer’s spouse, or
(iii)
any child (as defined in section 152(f)(1)) or grandchild of the taxpayer or the taxpayer’s spouse,
at an eligible educational institution (as defined in section 529(e)(5)).
(B)
Coordination with other benefits
(8)
Qualified first-time homebuyer distributions
For purposes of paragraph (2)(F)—
(A)
In general
(B)
Lifetime dollar limitation
The aggregate amount of payments or distributions received by an individual which may be treated as qualified first-time homebuyer distributions for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—
(i)
$10,000, over
(ii)
the aggregate amounts treated as qualified first-time homebuyer distributions with respect to such individual for all prior taxable years.
(C)
Qualified acquisition costs
(D)
First-time homebuyer; other definitions
For purposes of this paragraph—
(i)
First-time homebuyer
The term “first-time homebuyer” means any individual if—
(I)
such individual (and if married, such individual’s spouse) had no present ownership interest in a principal residence during the 2-year period ending on the date of acquisition of the principal residence to which this paragraph applies, and
(II)
subsection (h) or (k) of section 1034 5
5
 See References in Text note below.
(as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this paragraph) did not suspend the running of any period of time specified in section 1034 5 (as so in effect) with respect to such individual on the day before the date the distribution is applied pursuant to subparagraph (A).
(ii)
Principal residence
(iii)
Date of acquisition
The term “date of acquisition” means the date—
(I)
on which a binding contract to acquire the principal residence to which subparagraph (A) applies is entered into, or
(II)
on which construction or reconstruction of such a principal residence is commenced.
(E)
Special rule where delay in acquisition
If any distribution from any individual retirement plan fails to meet the requirements of subparagraph (A) solely by reason of a delay or cancellation of the purchase or construction of the residence, the amount of the distribution may be contributed to an individual retirement plan as provided in section 408(d)(3)(A)(i) (determined by substituting “120th day” for “60th day” in such section), except that—
(i)
section 408(d)(3)(B) shall not be applied to such contribution, and
(ii)
such amount shall not be taken into account in determining whether section 408(d)(3)(B) applies to any other amount.
(F)
Recontributions
(i)
General rule
(I)
In general
(II)
Treatment of repayments
(ii)
Qualified distribution
For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “qualified distribution” means any distribution—
(I)
which is a qualified first-time homebuyer distribution,
(II)
which was to be used to purchase or construct a principal residence in a qualified disaster area, but which was not so used on account of the qualified disaster with respect to such area, and
(III)
which was received during the period beginning on the date which is 180 days before the first day of the incident period of such qualified disaster and ending on the date which is 30 days after the last day of such incident period.
(iii)
Applicable period
(9)
Special rule for rollovers to section 457 plans
(10)
Distributions to qualified public safety employees and private sector firefighters
(A)
In general
(B)
Qualified public safety employee
For purposes of this paragraph, the term “qualified public safety employee” means—
(i)
any employee of a State or political subdivision of a State who provides police protection, firefighting services, emergency medical services, or services as a corrections officer or as a forensic security employee providing for the care, custody, and control of forensic patients for any area within the jurisdiction of such State or political subdivision, or
(ii)
any Federal law enforcement officer described in section 8331(20) or 8401(17) of title 5, United States Code, any Federal customs and border protection officer described in section 8331(31) or 8401(36) of such title, any Federal firefighter described in section 8331(21) or 8401(14) of such title, any air traffic controller described in 8331(30) or 8401(35) of such title, any nuclear materials courier described in section 8331(27) or 8401(33) of such title, any member of the United States Capitol Police, any member of the Supreme Court Police, or any diplomatic security special agent of the Department of State.
(11)
Qualified disaster recovery distribution
For purposes of paragraph (2)(M)—
(A)
In general
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term “qualified disaster recovery distribution” means any distribution made—
(i)
on or after the first day of the incident period of a qualified disaster and before the date that is 180 days after the applicable date with respect to such disaster, and
(ii)
to an individual whose principal place of abode at any time during the incident period of such qualified disaster is located in the qualified disaster area with respect to such qualified disaster and who has sustained an economic loss by reason of such qualified disaster.
(B)
Aggregate dollar limitation
(i)
In general
(ii)
Treatment of plan distributions
(iii)
Controlled group
(C)
Amount distributed may be repaid
(i)
In general
(ii)
Treatment of repayments of distributions from eligible retirement plans other than IRAs
(iii)
Treatment of repayments for distributions from IRAs
(D)
Income inclusion spread over 3-year period
(i)
In general
(ii)
Special rule
(E)
Qualified disaster
(F)
Other definitions
For purposes of this paragraph and paragraph (8)—
(i)
Qualified disaster area
(I)
In general
(II)
Exceptions
(ii)
Incident period
(iii)
Applicable date
The term “applicable date” means the latest of—
(I)
the date of the enactment of this paragraph,
(II)
the first day of the incident period with respect to the qualified disaster, or
(III)
the date of the disaster declaration with respect to the qualified disaster.
(iv)
Eligible retirement plan
(G)
Special rules
(i)
Exemption of distributions from trustee to trustee transfer and withholding rules
(ii)
Qualified disaster recovery distributions treated as meeting plan distribution requirements
For purposes of this title—
(I)
a qualified disaster recovery distribution shall be treated as meeting the requirements of sections 401(k)(2)(B)(i), 403(b)(7)(A)(i), 403(b)(11), and 457(d)(1)(A), and
(II)
in the case of a money purchase pension plan, a qualified disaster recovery distribution which is an in-service withdrawal shall be treated as meeting the requirements of section 401(a) applicable to distributions.
(u)
Treatment of annuity contracts not held by natural persons
(1)
In general
If any annuity contract is held by a person who is not a natural person—
(A)
such contract shall not be treated as an annuity contract for purposes of this subtitle (other than subchapter L), and
(B)
the income on the contract for any taxable year of the policyholder shall be treated as ordinary income received or accrued by the owner during such taxable year.
For purposes of this paragraph, holding by a trust or other entity as an agent for a natural person shall not be taken into account.
(2)
Income on the contract
(A)
In general
For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “income on the contract” means, with respect to any taxable year of the policyholder, the excess of—
(i)
the sum of the net surrender value of the contract as of the close of the taxable year plus all distributions under the contract received during the taxable year or any prior taxable year, reduced by
(ii)
the sum of the amount of net premiums under the contract for the taxable year and prior taxable years and amounts includible in gross income for prior taxable years with respect to such contract under this subsection.
Where necessary to prevent the avoidance of this subsection, the Secretary may substitute “fair market value of the contract” for “net surrender value of the contract” each place it appears in the preceding sentence.
(B)
Net premiums
(3)
Exceptions
This subsection shall not apply to any annuity contract which—
(A)
is acquired by the estate of a decedent by reason of the death of the decedent,
(B)
is held under a plan described in section 401(a) or 403(a), under a program described in section 403(b), or under an individual retirement plan,
(C)
is a qualified funding asset (as defined in section 130(d), but without regard to whether there is a qualified assignment),
(D)
is purchased by an employer upon the termination of a plan described in section 401(a) or 403(a) and is held by the employer until all amounts under such contract are distributed to the employee for whom such contract was purchased or the employee’s beneficiary, or
(E)
is an immediate annuity.
(4)
Immediate annuity
For purposes of this subsection, the term “immediate annuity” means an annuity—
(A)
which is purchased with a single premium or annuity consideration,
(B)
the annuity starting date (as defined in subsection (c)(4)) of which commences no later than 1 year from the date of the purchase of the annuity, and
(C)
which provides for a series of substantially equal periodic payments (to be made not less frequently than annually) during the annuity period.
(v)
10-percent additional tax for taxable distributions from modified endowment contracts
(1)
Imposition of additional tax
(2)
Subsection not to apply to certain distributions
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any distribution—
(A)
made on or after the date on which the taxpayer attains age 59½,
(B)
which is attributable to the taxpayer’s becoming disabled (within the meaning of subsection (m)(7)), or
(C)
which is part of a series of substantially equal periodic payments (not less frequently than annually) made for the life (or life expectancy) of the taxpayer or the joint lives (or joint life expectancies) of such taxpayer and his beneficiary.
(w)
Application of basis rules to nonresident aliens
(1)
In general
(2)
Applicable nontaxable contribution
For purposes of this subsection, the term “applicable nontaxable contribution” means any employer or employee contribution—
(A)
which was made with respect to compensation—
(i)
for labor or personal services performed by an employee who, at the time the labor or services were performed, was a nonresident alien for purposes of the laws of the United States in effect at such time, and
(ii)
which is treated as from sources without the United States, and
(B)
which was not subject to income tax (and would have been subject to income tax if paid as cash compensation when the services were rendered) under the laws of the United States or any foreign country.
(3)
Applicable nontaxable earnings
For purposes of this subsection, the term “applicable nontaxable earnings” means earnings—
(A)
which are paid or accrued with respect to any employer or employee contribution which was made with respect to compensation for labor or personal services performed by an employee,
(B)
with respect to which the employee was at the time the earnings were paid or accrued a nonresident alien for purposes of the laws of the United States, and
(C)
which were not subject to income tax under the laws of the United States or any foreign country.
(4)
Regulations
(x)
Cross reference
(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 20; Pub. L. 87–792, § 4(a), (b), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 821; Pub. L. 87–834, § 11(b), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1005; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, § 232(b), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 110; Pub. L. 89–44, title VIII, § 809(d)(2), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 167; Pub. L. 89–97, title I, § 106(d)(2), July 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 337; Pub. L. 89–365, § 1(b), Mar. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 32; Pub. L. 91–172, title V, § 515(b), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 644; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §§ 2001(e)(5), (g)(1), (2)(A), (h)(2), (3), 2002(g)(10), 2005(c)(3), 2007(b)(2), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 955, 957, 970, 991, 994; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§ 1901(a)(12), (13), 1906(b)(13)(A), 1951(b)(1)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1765, 1834, 1836; Pub. L. 97–34, title III, §§ 311(b)(1), 312(d), (e)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 278, 284; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §§ 236(a), (b), 237(d), 265(a), (b)(1), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 509–511, 544–546; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, § 103(c)(3)(B)(i), (6), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2376; Pub. L. 98–76, title II, § 224(a), Aug. 12, 1983, 97 Stat. 421; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title II, §§ 211(b)(1), 222(a), (b), title IV, §§ 421(b)(1), 491(d)(3), (4), title V, §§ 521(d), 523(a), (b), title VII, § 713(b)(1)–(c)(1)(B), (d)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 754, 774, 794, 849, 868, 871, 872, 956, 957; Pub. L. 98–397, title II, § 204(c)(2), Aug. 23, 1984, 98 Stat. 1448; Pub. L. 99–514, title XI, §§ 1101(b)(2)(B), (C), 1122(c), 1123(a), (b), (d)(1), 1134(a)–(d), 1135(a), title XVIII, §§ 1826(a), (b)(1)–(3), (c), (d), 1852(a)(2), (c)(1)–(4), 1854(b)(1), 1898(c)(1)(B), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2413, 2414, 2467, 2472, 2474, 2475, 2483, 2484, 2848–2850, 2864, 2867, 2878, 2951; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §§ 1011A(b)(1)(A), (B), (2), (9), (c)(1)–(8), (h), (i), 1018(k), (t)(1)(A), (B), (u)(8), title V, § 5012(a), (b)(1), (d), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3472, 3474–3476, 3482, 3583, 3587, 3590, 3661, 3662, 3664; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§ 7811(m)(4), 7815(a)(3), (5), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2412, 2414; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, § 11802(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–529; Pub. L. 102–318, title V, § 521(b)(3), July 3, 1992, 106 Stat. 310; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§ 1403(a), 1421(b)(4)(A), 1463(a), 1704(l)(1), (t)(2), (77), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1790, 1796, 1824, 1882, 1887, 1891; Pub. L. 104–191, title III, § 361(a)–(c), Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 2071, 2072; Pub. L. 105–34, title II, § 203(a), (b), title III, § 303(a), (b), title X, § 1075(a), (b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 809, 829, 949; Pub. L. 105–206, title III, § 3436(a), title VI, §§ 6004(d)(3)(B), 6005(c)(1), 6023(3), (4), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 761, 794, 800, 824; Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, § 402(a)(4)(A), (B), title VI, §§ 632(a)(3)(A), 641(a)(2)(C), (e)(1),
cite as: 26 USC 72