1
 See References in Text note below.
of this title at any time prior to the establishment by the Secretary, as provided therein, of a minimum wage rate applicable to such work.
2
 So in original. Probably should be “section”.
212 or 213(c) of this title, relating to child labor, or any regulation issued pursuant to such sections, shall be subject to a civil penalty not to exceed—
References in Text

The Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947, referred to in subsec. (d), is act May 14, 1947, ch. 52, 61 Stat. 84, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 9 (§ 251 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 251 of this title and Tables.

The effective date of this amendment of subsection (d), referred to in subsec. (d), occurred upon the expiration of 90 days after Aug. 30, 1957. See section 2 of Pub. L. 85–231, set out as an Effective Date of 1957 Amendment note under section 213 of this title.

Section 206(a)(3) of this title, referred to in subsec. (d)(3), was repealed and section 206(a)(4) of this title was redesignated section 206(a)(3) by Pub. L. 110–28, title VIII, § 8103(c)(1)(B), May 25, 2007, 121 Stat. 189.

Constitutionality

For information regarding constitutionality of certain provisions of section 16 of act June 25, 1938, as amended by section 6(d)(1) of Pub. L. 93–259, see Congressional Research Service, The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, Appendix 1, Acts of Congress Held Unconstitutional in Whole or in Part by the Supreme Court of the United States.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–141, § 1201(b)(1), inserted “Any employer who violates section 203(m)(2)(B) of this title shall be liable to the employee or employees affected in the amount of the sum of any tip credit taken by the employer and all such tips unlawfully kept by the employer, and in an additional equal amount as liquidated damages.” after second sentence and struck out “either of” after “liability prescribed in”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–141, § 1201(b)(2), inserted at end “The authority and requirements described in this subsection shall apply with respect to a violation of section 203(m)(2)(B) of this title, as appropriate, and the employer shall be liable for the amount of the sum of any tip credit taken by the employer and all such tips unlawfully kept by the employer, and an additional equal amount as liquidated damages.”

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 115–141, § 1201(b)(3), inserted at end “Any person who violates section 203(m)(2)(B) of this title shall be subject to a civil penalty not to exceed $1,100 for each such violation, as the Secretary determines appropriate, in addition to being liable to the employee or employees affected for all tips unlawfully kept, and an additional equal amount as liquidated damages, as described in subsection (b).”

2008—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–233 amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) related to civil penalties for child labor violations.

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–174 in first sentence substituted “of section 212 of this title or section 213(c)(5) of this title” for “of section 212 of this title” and “under section 212 of this title or section 213(c)(5) of this title” for “under that section”.

1990—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–508 struck out “or any person who repeatedly or willfully violates section 206 or 207 of this title” after “issued under that section,” in first sentence, substituted “not to exceed $10,000 for each employee who was the subject of such a violation” for “not to exceed $1,000 for each such violation” in first sentence, inserted after first sentence “Any person who repeatedly or willfully violates section 206 or 207 of this title shall be subject to a civil penalty of not to exceed $1,000 for each such violation.”, substituted “any penalty under this subsection” for “such penalty” wherever appearing except after “appropriateness of”, substituted “Except for civil penalties collected for violations of section 212 of this title, sums” for “Sums” in last sentence, and inserted at end “Civil penalties collected for violations of section 212 of this title shall be deposited in the general fund of the Treasury.”

1989—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–157 inserted “or any person who repeatedly or willfully violates section 206 or 207 of this title” in introductory provisions and inserted “or a repeated or willful violation of section 215(a)(2) of this title” in par. (3).

1977—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–151, § 10(a), (b), inserted provisions relating to violations of section 215(a)(3) of this title by employers, “(1)” after “section 217 of this title in which”, and cl. (2), and substituted “An action to recover the liability prescribed in either of the preceding sentences” for “Action to recover such liability”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–151, § 10(c), inserted “to recover the liability specified in the first sentence of such subsection” after “an action by or on behalf of any employee”.

1974—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–259, § 6(d)(1), substituted in second sentence “maintained against any employer (including a public agency) in any Federal or State court” for “maintained in any court”.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–259, § 26, in revising first three sentences, reenacted first sentence, substituting “Secretary” for “Secretary of Labor”; included in second sentence provision for an action by the Secretary for liquidated damaged and deleted requirement of a written request by an employee claiming unpaid minimum wages or unpaid overtime compensation with the Secretary of Labor prior to an action by the Secretary and proviso prohibiting any action in any case involving an issue of law not settled finally by the courts and depriving courts of jurisdiction of any action or proceeding involving the issue of law not settled finally; and substituted third sentence “The right provided by subsection (b) to bring by or on behalf of any employee and of any employees to become a party plaintiff to any such action shall terminate upon the filing of a complaint by the Secretary in an action under this subsection in which a recovery is sought of unpaid minimum wages or unpaid overtime compensation under sections 206 and 207 of this title or liquidated or other damages provided by this subsection owing to such employee by an employer liable under the provisions of subsection (b), unless such action is dismissed without prejudice on motion of the Secretary.” for “The consent of any employee to the bringing of any such action by the Secretary of Labor, unless such action is dismissed without prejudice on motion of the Secretary of Labor, shall constitute a waiver by such employee of any right of action he may have under subsection (b) of this section for such unpaid wages or unpaid overtime compensation and an additional equal amount as liquidated damages.”

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 93–259, § 25(c), added subsec. (e).

1966—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–601 substituted “statutes of limitations” for “two-year statute of limitations”.

1961—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87–30 provided for termination of right of action upon commencement of injunction proceedings by the Secretary of Labor.

1957—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 85–231 added cls. (1) and (2) and designated existing provisions as cl. (3).

1956—Subsec. (d). Act Aug. 8, 1956, added subsec. (d).

1949—Subsec. (c). Act Oct. 26, 1949, added subsec. (c).

1947—Subsec. (b). Act May 14, 1947, struck out provisions relating to the designation by employee or employees of an agent or representative to maintain an action under this section for and on behalf of all employees similarly situated and inserted provisions relating to the requirement that no employee shall be a party plaintiff unless he gives his consent in writing and such consent is filed with the court.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–233, title III, § 302(b), May 21, 2008, 122 Stat. 922, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [May 21, 2008].”

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–151 effective Jan. 1, 1978, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 95–151, set out as a note under section 203 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–259 effective May 1, 1974, see section 29(a) of Pub. L. 93–259, set out as a note under section 202 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–601 effective Feb. 1, 1967, except as otherwise provided, see section 602 of Pub. L. 89–601, set out as a note under section 203 of this title.

Effective Date of 1961 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–30 effective upon expiration of one hundred and twenty days after May 5, 1961, except as otherwise provided, see section 14 of Pub. L. 87–30, set out as a note under section 203 of this title.

Effective Date of 1957 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–231 effective upon expiration of ninety days from Aug. 30, 1957, see section 2 of Pub. L. 85–231, set out as a note under section 213 of this title.

Effective Date of 1949 Amendment

Amendment by act Oct. 26, 1949, effective ninety days after Oct. 26, 1949, see section 16(a) of act Oct. 26, 1949, set out as a note under section 202 of this title.

Effective Date of 1947 Amendment

Act May 14, 1947, ch. 52, § 5(b), 61 Stat. 87, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] shall be applicable only with respect to actions commenced under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended [this chapter], on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [May 14, 1947].”

Transfer of Functions

Functions relating to enforcement and administration of equal pay provisions vested by subsecs. (b) and (c) of this section in Secretary of Labor transferred to Equal Employment Opportunity Commission by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1978, § 1, 43 F.R. 19807, 92 Stat. 3781, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, effective Jan. 1, 1979, as provided by section 1–101 of Ex. Ord. No. 12106, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1053.

For transfer of functions of other officers, employees, and agencies of Department of Labor, with certain exceptions, to Secretary of Labor, with power to delegate, see Reorg. Plan No. 6 of 1950, §§ 1, 2, 15 F.R. 3174, 64 Stat. 1263, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

Liability of State, Political Subdivision, or Interstate Governmental Agency for Violations Before April 15, 1986, Respecting any Employee Not Covered Under Special Enforcement Policy

Pub. L. 99–150, § 2(c)(1), Nov. 13, 1985, 99 Stat. 788, provided that: “No State, political subdivision of a State, or interstate governmental agency shall be liable under section 16 of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 [29 U.S.C. 216] for a violation of section 6 [29 U.S.C. 206] (in the case of a territory or possession of the United States), 7 [29 U.S.C. 207], or 11(c) [29 U.S.C. 211(c)] (as it relates to section 7) of such Act occurring before April 15, 1986, with respect to any employee of the State, political subdivision, or agency who would not have been covered by such Act [this chapter] under the Secretary of Labor’s special enforcement policy on January 1, 1985, and published in sections 775.2 and 775.4 of title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations.”

Effect of Amendments by Public Law 99–150 on Public Agency Liability Respecting any Employee Covered Under Special Enforcement Policy

Pub. L. 99–150, § 7, Nov. 13, 1985, 99 Stat. 791, provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1985 Amendment note set out under section 201 of this title] shall not affect whether a public agency which is a State, political subdivision of a State, or an interstate governmental agency is liable under section 16 of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 [29 U.S.C. 216] for a violation of section 6, 7, or 11 of such Act [29 U.S.C. 206, 207, 211] occurring before April 15, 1986, with respect to any employee of such public agency who would have been covered by such Act [this chapter] under the Secretary of Labor’s special enforcement policy on January 1, 1985, and published in section 775.3 of title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations.”

Rules, Regulations, and Orders Promulgated With Regard to 1966 Amendments

Secretary authorized to promulgate necessary rules, regulations, or orders on and after the date of the enactment of Pub. L. 89–601, Sept. 23, 1966, with regard to the amendments made by Pub. L. 89–601, see section 602 of Pub. L. 89–601, set out as a note under section 203 of this title.

Construction of 1949 Amendments With Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947

Act Oct. 26, 1949, ch. 736, § 16(b), 63 Stat. 920, provided that: “Except as provided in section 3(o) [29 U.S.C. 203(o)] and in the last sentence of section 16(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended [29 U.S.C. 216(c)], no amendment made by this Act [amending sections 202, 208, 211 to 217 of this title] shall be construed as amending, modifying, or repealing any provisions of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947.”

Retroactive Effect of 1949 Amendments; Limitation of Actions

Act Oct. 26, 1949, ch. 736, § 16(d), 63 Stat. 920, provided that actions based upon acts or omissions occurring prior to the effective date of act Oct. 26, 1949, which was to be effective ninety days after Oct. 26, 1949, were not prevented by the amendments made to sections 202 to 208, and 211 to 217 of this title by such act, so long as such actions were instituted within two years from such effective date.